Glossary for Business and Economics Created by Students
Word Meaning Use in Text Use in New Sentence Student Name
abandon give up completely; desert The abandoned merger was the Asian-Pacific region's first attempt at joining carriers from different countries. The abandoned ship is sinking. Sammy CH Li
abandoned to leave completely and forever It!|s like a Colorado ghost town, abandoned since the silver mining operation closed down The soldiers abandoned the ships after being attacked by missiles Penny
abate make or become less The long-term prospects for productivity growth and the economy remain favorable and should become evident once the unusual forces restraining demand abate, the Fed statement said. It's good to see that the unemployment rate is abating. David
abate (v.) make or become less The fever never abates. The influence of the typhoon abates and fine weather is expected in a few days. Chan Yung
abide act in accordance with sth. If tourists understand why the controls are necessary, they will more likely abide by them. People always have to abide by contracts when they are making transactions. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
abide To continue to be sure or firm Mr Cheng said that the government must abide by its promise to create 30,000 jobs within five years by means of an infrastructure boost, as foreshadowed by Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa last year. tenacity Peter has to abide by his promise to get 5 distinctions in the certificate examination. Otherwise, his mother will not let him have a trip to Japan. Lee Ching Frederick
abolish to bring to an end; stop National policies theta deter the free trade of agricultural goods will be abolished. There are many bad customs and laws that ought to be abolished. ZANG YU
abolish end the existence of (an institution) Mr Yam said the de facto central bank had conducted daily surveys of more than 30 leading retail banks to monitor the impact of deregulation on the banking sector since the final caps on deposit rates were abolished on July 3. The death penalty has been abolished in Hong Kong. Kenneth Fong (2001489851)
abolish put an end to, do away with, eg war, slavery, an old custom. But as part of a review, it is believed to be studying abolishing the fruit money allowance altogether. The president of the college refused to abolish the physical education requirement. Tang Ning (2002999736)
abolition Put an end to something However, under WTO rules, the planned abolition of the quota system in 2005 will usher in a completely new set of conditions. The government should consider the abolition of the HOS. Wilson Lam
abolition of the existence of custom or an institution. Local travel agencies backed the Immigration Department!|s estimates, adding that more visitors would arrive for the week-long holiday this year compared with the last due to abolition of quota for mainland tourists Lincoln contributed a lot to the abolition of slavery. joyce, Ma Xumin
abrasive rude and rather aggressive The US is like a rich man with abrasive manners, its style is very tough. After observing him for a while, I think he is an abrasive person. Ricky Biala
abreast Side by side; Up to date with. We will organize employment seminars to keep trainees abreast of up-to-date market information. In order to keep abreast of time, Mr,Lee read three newspapers everyday Yip Ka Man
abreast If you are abreast of a subject or situation, you stay informed about the most recent facts about it. Because of a lack of a long-term review of the system, the pay policy can't keep abreast of market conditions. As a student studying in Economics, I should keep abreast of the current economic situation. Jessica
absorption take in something The absorption and application of technology will significantly benefit Hong Kong. Teenagers are usually more absorptive than the elderly. Hui Ka Kit
Absorption take in something The absorption and application of technology will significantly benefit Hong Kong Teenagers are usually more absorptive than the elderly. hui ka kit
abundant plenty of But the picture changes if the era of cheap and abundant oil is drawing to a close. There is an abundant supply of water from mainland China. Lee Chung Yi Phoebe
academia scholars and students of the academic world and their activities A high-level forum taps the views of academia to tackle unemployment. Academia are usually high educated. Lam Hon Wai, Kelvin
accelerate Increase the speed of; become quicker; make sth. Happen sooner The mainland would accelerate market-based restructuring of the sector and improve laws and supervision to meet the challenge. The government will accelerate the schedule of building infrastructure to provide more jobs. Hau Hoi Wan
accelerate increase the speed He also suggests that measures be taken to accelerate reform of monopolistic sectors such as telecom, aviation and transportation. The government should carry out some actions in order to accelerating the rate of the economic growth rate. joyce, Ma Xumin
accelerate to increase the speed of Yesterday's move by Standard & Poor's Ratings Services to revise downward Hong Kong's long-term currency outlook to negative from stable may also place additional pressure on the government to accelerate monetary policy reforms Scrapping the peg may accelerate the recovery of HK economy zil yau
accession the act of coming to a position China's WTO accession would boost U.S. agriculture experts and farm income. The collection of modern paintings has become larger through accession. ZANG YU
accession 1. reaching a rank or position 2. action of being added In recent bilateral negotiations with the United States over World Trade Organisation (WTO) accession, China has offered a package of significant reductions in tariff and non-tariff barriers on agricultural and industrial products. With China's WTO accession, Hong Kong will benefit a lot. Irene Lee (2001238226)
accession coming the a high position It is in fact the first time that such a seminar has been held in an accession country to the WTO. If the government can handle the accession to WTO successfully, instead of being a harm to the economy, it will be a great benefit to China. chloe shek
accession the act of coming into higher position In sum, China's WTO accession will generate a host of opportunities for Hong Kong, but it will also bring about fierce competition and numerous challenges. Accession into the stock market is not an easy for a new company. Wong Ka Man Carmen
accession reaching a rank or position With the accession of China, the WTO will become a truly global multilateral trade organization. All the citizens in the country are celebrating the queen's accession to the throne. Man Angela Pui Kei
accession Having the right to enter or use. To be able to enter something Foreign businesses wanting to tap the business opportunities in the transportation Taiwan's accession to the WTO may enhance the business activities in the region Cheung Chong Wing (Wing)
accession joining, addition China's WTO accession brings opportunities and challenges to Hong Kong. His new accession to our group ensures that we will have sufficient manpower. Hui Chi Hao
acclaim Enthusiastic welcome or approval Hong Kong International Airport has received widespread acclaim. She gives John great acclaim because of his recent performance. Wilson Lam
accomplish Succeed in doing or achieving something That was accomplished by cutting time and cost from the overall process The government can accomplish their aim by putting more effort into improving the economy. Cheung Chong Wing (Wing)
Accord Accord A December 1986 OPEC price accord set to target $18 per barrel was already breaking down by January of 1987. All of our classmates are in accord on the view of the effects on globalization. Adam
accord To cause to conform or agree; Bring into harmony. To grant, especially as being due or appropriate. The government would continue to accord top priority to tackle the unemployment problem. James was accorded an important mission for saving his country. Yip Ka Man
Accountable Required or expected to give an explanation for one!|s actions, etc; responsible. Time to test the Government!|s new accountability system. He should be accountable for all he had done. FeiFei
accrue to come to one as a gain to increase, accumulate or come about as a result common sense that accrues with experience The rental expense has accrued for more than three months. Ko Kit Lung, Go Go (2001342065)
accrue comes from a natural growth or development 11 of 47 schemes put the accrued interest into the schemes to benefit all the members Interest accrues if money is kept in the savings account. Tam YUen LAm
Accusation (n.) accusing or being accused  Mr Tien dismissed the accusations. My friend has brought an accusation of theft. Kyle Tang
accuse blame for, make a claim of wrongdoing or misbehavior against Professor Cheng accused the government of oversupplying HOS flats and sending mixed signals which had further hampered the ailing property market. He is accused of bribery. Tommy
accuse of To say that someone has done something wrong A Wellcome spokeswomen accused its competitor of 'stealing' the idea from a scheme which ran in July in which the elderly were given a free orange with every purchase above $20. He is accused of theft and will be sent to the court. Yip Sau Wa
accustom familiarize, get used to Americans have grown accustomed to fighting with little economic upset and sacrifice. Jane is accustomed to going to bad before ten o!|clock as she thinks that sufficient sleeping enhances her productivity. Lee Chung Yi Phoebe
ace person who is an expert at some activity. The Secretary for Civil Service, Joseph Wong Wing-ping, said the findings were encouraging and showed the civil service was an ace team Beckham is our ace footballer in the match. Raye Wu Wai Lam
acknowledged admit Mr. Latter acknowledged the peg had ruled out the use of monetary policy to eliminate deflation, but said even countries with flexible exchange rate systems had suffered deflation. The man acknowledged the student was knocked down by his car. Ho Ka Ming
acquisition to obtain (something) Recent deals such as Inktomi Corp.'s acquisition of eScene Networks Inc. and enScaler Inc's partnership with Digital Pipe Inc. have created companies that offer end-to end solutions for corporations. The museum has been heavily criticized over its acquisition of the four-million-dollar sculpture. Vincy Tam
Acquisition The act of obtaining something Average U.S. refiner acquisition cost for a barrel of a barrel of crude oil: $26.41 (August). (DOE) The acquisition of knowledge is nothing easy. It is actually a long and hard road. Lois Sit
Acquisition The act of acquiring (gain possession of ). The government would reap a large lump sum of money under such an acquisition proposal, He is a valuable acquisition to the team. Peter Poon
acrimony bitterness of manner of words. The drawn out acrimony seems to have had little effect lately on Cathay's bottom line... The dispute was settled without acrimony. Dominic Yik
acumen ability to think and judge quickly and well Left to themselves, the SAR's entrepreneurs have shown that they the drive and the business acumen to thrive. A good manager should have innovative ideas and acumen .
acumen ability to think and judge quickly and well Left to themselves, the SAR's entrepreneurs have shown that they the drive and the business acumen to thrive. A good manager should have innovative ideas and acumen . Wong Ka Man Carmen
acumen Quickness, accuracy, and keenness of judgment or insight Our business acumen within the HKMA is unlikely to surpass that of practitioners in our financial markets. People adore those who gain acumen. Eko, Yin Zheng
acute grave; serious; severe; sharp We are facing the most acute economic problems for many years. On 10th of October, Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa gave his fifth policy address. He proposed several overtures to stimulate the economy, improve the business environment and reduce the acute unemployment rate. vivien
ad hoc (made or arranged) for a particular purpose only Science is always striving to move from ad hoc hypotheses that explain only special cases to more general explanations. The Chief Executive appointed an ad hoc committee to investigate the cause of this event. Chan Kit Chung
ad hoc temporary or in the way that is not planned The government should not introduce ad hoc measures with significant impact. This problem cannot be solved on an ad hoc basis. We must think of a comprehensive way to solve it. Ko Pak Chuen
adamant firmly or stubbornly determined, unwilling to be persuaded When pressed further as to how the government would minimize the possibility of a crisis, Tung said adamantly, 'It's not about trying to minimize...there is no impact..I've told you several times.' He is adamant to regain his control over the company. Ross
adamant 1 : a stone (as a diamond) formerly believed to be of impenetrable hardness 2 : an unbreakable or extremely hard substance Officials are adamant that the problem must be sorted out by the World Cup in 2002 in Japan and South Korea. He is adamant that he must get over 80 marks in the next maths test. Wong chun yin Benjamin
Adamantly Firm, not to change their mind or decision Tung said adamantly:! It!|s not about trying to minimize!K!Kthere is no impact!K..I have told you several times.! The administrator said adamantly that the coming up policy must be enforced. Candy Lau
adaptability The ability to suit to a situation The adaptability of Hong Kong industries is great enough to with her excellent flexibility and adaptability Jason Ling
adaptability Capable of being adapted or adapting I firmly believe that with our intelligence, determination and adaptability we can overcome all difficulties as we forge ahead towards a bright future Businessmen in Hong Kong have high adaptability, so that they can suit themselves into different situations and survive in the economic downturn. Lai Wai Yin
additive The substance which is added to food in order to improve its taste or appearance or to preserve it. Fancl researchers have produced No Additives products which are 100% natural without preservatives. Many people do not like to eat fast food because they think that it is full of additives. Chow Kwok Shing
Adept Highly skilled Yet another advantage of connectionist models is that they fit well with the observation that human memory is adept at filling in the gaps when information is missing. (Psychology: Themes and Variations, p. 278) He is adept at building models of aeroplanes. Candy Lau
adhere to favour strongly; be faithful to (an idea, opinion, belief, etc.) We have to strictly adhere to the spending limit we made in March for 2003-04, or even reduce it further according to actual needs. You should always adhere your beliefs in any occasions. Jessica
Adhere Remain attached to something; stick We have to strictly adhere to the spending limit we made in March for 2003-04, or even reduce it further according to actual needs. It is important for us to adhere to a promise. Cheung Lo
adhere to (v) remain attached, stick; give support to something; remain faithful to something He insisted the existing pay adjustment mechanism should be adhered to. Students are required to adhere to school rules strictly. Vanessa WU
adherence a) supporting a sort of idea wholly; be loyal to the idea b) !In accessing the adherence of its members to OPEC production quotas and ceilings, OPEC!|s secretariat experts officially track what is termed !Dsupply to market.!|! c) They have a strict adherence of the Marxist values. Kathy Chan
adherent A supporter, as of a cause or individual The World Trade Center was the main adherent of the financial market in the world. As the US had been the main adherent of Hong Kong exports, the collapse of the US economy greatly affected the exports and the re-exports of Hong Kong. Choi Wing Yu
adjoin to be very near, next to, or touching There is an urgent need in setting up an advisory body which comprises representative at different levels from adjoining cities and areas. Hong Kong and Shenzhen are geographically adjoining neighbors. Oriana Fu
adjourn to make a pause or rest in (esp. a meeting, trial, etc.) While Senators camped in cubby holes and went about their business, Congressmen called it a day and adjourned. The meeting was adjourned until Tuesday. Vincy Tam
Adjudicate (v.) To make an official decision about who is right in a disagreement between two groups or organizations Their purpose is to adjudicate disputes between employers and employees. Who is adjudicating at this year's contest? Wong Man Chun
administration part of the Government which manages public affairs. This has left the administration with little room to increase spending at a time when pressure on the welfare system is rising. Successive Administration failed to solved the country's problems. Tang Ning(2002999736)
adopt To take up and make one's own Mainland visitors have now adopted a wait-and see attitude towards their travel plans. The Hong Kong Government has adopted a plan to build the Disney theme park. Lawrence Kam
adverse Acting or serving to oppose; antagonistic The factors listed above will cause an adverse impact on Hong Kong economy The terror attack on the US will undoubtedly cause an adverse impact on Hong Kong's economy. Lawrence Kam
adverse Unfavorable, going against, opposing The strong labor market of the last four years, however, is not definitive proof that the minimum wage has no adverse effects on employment. Adverse winds hinder ships. David Chan
adversity misfortune, hardship; distress, suffering When confronted with adversity, Hong Kong people always rise to the occasion. We should not rely on the government to overcome the economic adversity. vivien
adversity A state of hardship or affliction; misfortune. Many of the bureaus officers and business community were disappointed with Mr. Tung's proposal and think that the blueprint did not go far enough, and could not help the homeowners in such an adversity. When it came to adversity, Peter would try to guide us through. Eva Hung
Advocate one that defends or maintains a cause or proposal China has consistently advocated that peace is valuable, which means China hopes that the Iraq issue would be settled politically, and this is also the universal wishes of the international community. do not advocate building a police station next to my home. Penny
advocate one that pleads the cause of another; specifically : one that pleads the cause of another before a tribunal or judicial court one that defends or maintains a cause or proposal The government would be contradicting itself by pushing ahead education reform and advocating better values among youngsters while allowing gambling on football. When he was wrongly accused of stealing, he got the best advocate in town to defend him. Wong chun yin Benjamin
advocate speak in favour of something It all adds up to increasing pressure on the Federal Reserve to fire some of the few rounds left in its monetary bazooka, as two central bankers advocated this week in a rare dissent from the policy backed by Chairman Alan Greenspan. During the Qing Dynasty, people advocated that women should be literate and have the right to go to school. Lee Chung Yi Phoebe
Aesthetic appreciation beauty and beautiful things Hong Kong films!| action aesthetic has attained brand status in the world marketplace. This computer is aesthetic and practical. hui ka kit
Aesthetic appreciation beauty and beautiful things Hong Kong films!| action aesthetic has attained brand status in the world marketplace. This computer is aesthetic and practical. hui ka kit
Affiliate some companies or organizations that join together to form a larger group A loose affiliation of carriers through t to handle more than 80 percent of the market Two public corportions, MTR and KCR, decide to affiliate together Polly Tsui Hoi Yan
Affiliate Become connected Non-affiliated legislator Michael Mak Kwok-fung accused big enterprises of creating unemployment by mass sackings of staff, which in turn affected social stability and discouraged spending. This school is affiliated with a secondary school. Wu Hoi Kit
affiliated a branch organization, being in close association China should allow foreign-affiliated business to import and export their goods in Chinese ports. A radio network has many affiliate local stations. Lawrecne Lam
affiliates Join with, connect to , become attached Other cuts will be made by reducing the number of flights between by replacing United's bug jets with smaller regional jets flown by its affiliates. Might the affiliated companies lose their confidence in investment in the airline business? Pooh
affiliation connections made by affiliating is to allow the Secretary for Security to ban Hong Kong organisations to set up affiliations to those outlawed on the mainland on the grounds of national security Social workers are may affilations throught out the country. Dominic Yik
affirm To state (something) as true, or to state your support for (an idea, opinion, etc.) The test affirmed the luminous efficacy (amount of light output produced per unit of electricity) of Compact Fluorescent Lamps to be clearly above that of ordinary light bulbs - by as much as 4 to 5 times. The suspect affirmed that he had been at home all evening. Chow Kwok Shing
afflict distress with bodily or mental suffering A peculiarity of the negative-equity problem is that it afflicts the rich Recently projects have been afflicting me. Tam Ho Leung
affluent wealthy The larger number of increasingly affluent Mainland residents constitutes an important source of visitors yet to be tapped by our tourism industry Mainland visitors will become more and more affluent after the entrance to the WTO. Lawrence Kam
afloat (of a business) started The government keeps the companies afloat by ordering state-owned banks to give them loans. The reason why this company is still afloat is the great support from the government. Hau Hoi Wan
aftermath circumstances that follow and are a consequence of an event, etc (esp. an unpleasant one) Just around the corner from the site of the destroyed World Trade Centre towers, those who work on the New York Stock Exchange get a daily reminder of the recent horrors and their aftermath. The rebuilding took place in the aftermath of the war. Kwok Hon Ho
Aftermath Result or aftereffect of something, usually bad My biggest concern is that I don’t think the aftermath of the war has been fully thought out. It is very hard to earn a living in the aftermath of war.
Aftermath the effects which it causes; the period which follows an event, accident, etc. The cause of deflation indisputably has been the pegged exchange rate and the aftermath of a number of depreciation and devaluations in Asia in 1997 and 1998, and the fact the Hong Kong had a property boom from 1995 to 1997 Large numbers of businesses went bankrupt in the aftermath of the recession Ryan Wong Siu Fung
Aftermath the situation that exists as a result of an important (and usually unpleasant) event, especially a war, an accident, etc !The cause of deflation indisputably has been the pegged exchange rate and the aftermath of a number of depreciation and devaluations in Asia in 1997 and 1998, and the fact the Hong Kong had a property boom from 1995 to 1997.! A lot of rebuilding took place in the aftermath of the war. Ivy Yu Nga Yan
Aftermath Result or aftereffect of something, usually bad My biggest concern is that I don’t think the aftermath of the war has been fully thought out. It is very hard to earn a living in the aftermath of war. Karen Wong Ka Yan
Aftermath (noun) the outcome of something the US would be the dominant foreign power in Iraq in the aftermath of Saddam's fall. misery is often the aftermath of war Quon Fu Wah
aftershock derived effects But the industry aftershocks could last for months. The aftershocks of the twister are unpredictable. Phoebe Chan
agape (of the mouth) wide open, especially with wonder He watched with mouth agape. John stood, agape, as he watched the stuntsman set himself on fire. Karen Chan
agenda A list or program of things to be done or considered Education sits at the top of our social policy agenda The agenda of the next general meeting will be distributed next Monday Lai Wai Yin
agenda the matters of business to be discussed Is there a hidden agenda? i have prepared the agenda for the next meeting. man yi lok (ricka)
aggrandize increase the power, rank, wealth or importance of a person or an economy Everybody knows that competition from the rest of the world will aggrandize after China's entry. His sole aim of working so hard in the past few months is personal aggrandizement. Man Angela Pui Kei
aggravate if someone aggravates a situation, they make it worse The move will only aggravate our financial burden and won't help reduce unemployment. Thinking too much would only aggravate your performance Janice Hui
aggravate make a situation worse or more serious Asset price deflation, weak domestic consumption and increased unemployment were aggravating the city's economic problems. The 911 event aggravated the recession of US. Henry Pang
aggravate To make worse or more troublesome. Standard & Poor's said concerns over asset price deflation, weak domestic consumption and increased unemployment were aggravating the city's economic problems. Scrapping the peg with US may aggravate the economy of HK zil yau
Aggravate make (a situation) worse or more serious The challenge for officials is to identify suitable ones and work out appropriate financing formulas so they can be undertaken by the private sector without aggravating the budget deficit. Don!|t be so impatient. It will only aggravate the matter if you are not sure whether you can handle it. Ng Wai Wa
aggregate amount to As the aggregate price level falls, the value of your wealth may increase. The audiences aggregated a million people. Josephine Chan
aggregate Sum of smaller elements mixed together to make a larger whole So the aggregate demand for cruel oil is very low. The aggregate supply of oil is reducing. Ngai Hau Yung
agile able to move quickly and easily They are more agile, creative and adaptable than their larger brethren. When comparing with adults, children are more agile and emotional. Wong Ka Man Carmen
agile (adj) able to move quickly and easily The key to success is to be able to pick the right opportunities, remain agile and make adjustments along the way. It is an agile animal. Rico Chan
agitate shake or stir vigorously; Arouse public attention Allen Lee Peng-fei and Wu Ying-sheung have been agitating for a full border opening as soon as possible. he mass media having been agitating for the problem of Hong Kong education. Rolen
agitation Disturbed state of mind or feelings Goalless it stayed, much to Capello's agitation. She was in a state of great agitation. Lawrence Lau
Agitation Disturbed state of mind or feelings. !The previously available drugs had seemingly little helpful influence except sometimes to ameliorate agitation.! I worried about her because she was in a state of great agitation in these few days. Ng Yik Yu Gloria
agnostic (n) unbeliever; an agnostic believes that it is not possible to know whether God exist or not. If the UK is seen as a constructive agnostic, it will be listened to on such subjects as competition policy. Susan claimd that God does not exist at all while John, who is an agnostic, rebuked severely that her claim cannot be proved in fact. Terri Cheung Pui Yi (2002376398)
Agonizing Extremely painful In spite of all his agonizing inner struggle, he could not believe for one moment in the carrying out of his plans. Mary died an agonizing death. 2002303640
ail to give physical or emotional pain, discomfort, or trouble to Early indications of Do you know what ails that crying child? LAI MAN KIT (2001473412)
ail Trouble; Make ill or uneasy The group and four other business bodies had planned to make a joint submission on ways to boost the ailing economy Many critics stand against the government ailing education policy. Rolen
ail (v) to be ill and grow week Now, the US economy ailing. My grandmother is ailing. Rico Chan
ailing pain; distress, trouble; afflict The budget deficit could be resolved within years by stabilizing the ailing property market. He decides to do more exercise to improve his ailing health condition. CHUNG KWOK CHU(ANTHONY)
ailing somewhat ill or prone to illness Professor Cheng accused the government of oversupplying HOS flats and sending mixed signals which had further hampered the ailing property market. The children are always ailing , always in poor health. Tommy
Ailing trouble; be ill The budget deficit could be resolved within years by stabilizing the ailing property market. Tina’s health is not good. She is always ailing. Wong Kwai Man
Ailing (adj.) unwell; ill   !Kthat there is a limit to the effectiveness of expenditure cuts if the pie of revenue keeps shrinking due to an ailing economy. We have to find out some solutions to solve this ailing economy. Kyle Tang
akin similar; related In brute terms of lives and property lost, the terrorist attacks are somewhat akin to natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes and earthquakes He felt something akin to pity. Kwok Hon Ho
akin (adj.) akin to something (formal) means similar to It is akin to screwing down the safety valve on a pressure cooker and the explosion you inevitably get from this is the one we had in the Asian financial crisis of 1997. What he felt was more akin to pity than love. Surat Suwannikkha
albatross a large white bird with long strong wings, found esp. in the areas of the Pacific and S Atlantic oceans If you say that something or someone is an albatross (round your neck), you mean that you want to be free from them because they are causing you problems. If the government keeps on its interventionist track it will be an albatross around Hong Kong's neck for some time to come, Mr Walker said. Her own supporters see her as an albatross who could lose them the election. Tse Wun Man
Albatross something that causes persistent deep concern If the government keeps on its interventionist track it will be an albatross around Hong Kong!|s neck for some time to come Her own supporters see her as an albatross who could lose them the election. Ryan Wong Siu Fung
albatross a thing that causes problems or prevents you from doing sth !If the government keeps on its interventionist track it will be an albatross around Hong Kong!|s neck for some time to come.! The national debt is an albatross around the president's neck. Ivy Yu Nga Yan
albeit although (formal) But despite all this, Mr Leung was at it again last week, albeit in more cautious terms. He finally agreed, albeit reluctantly, to help us. Surat Suwannikkha
albeit Although; notwithstanding Passengers are allowed to check their bags at curbside, albeit with tighter security than before. Clear albeit cold weather shows the coming of winter. Yvonne
albeit conceding the fact that : even though Though some forms of gaming have been legal in Hong Kong for years, albeit under tight control, a small but vocal faction opposes liberalizing gambling further. The players are satisfied with their performance, albeit they lost the match, they have tried their best
Albeit (conj.) although The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) holds the same line of argument, albeit more diplomatically. He finally agreed, albeit reluctantly, to help us. Wong Man Chun
Alienation Estrangement. !It would be helpful to eliminate influences that contribute to loneliness, alienation, and poor self-esteem! Her criminal activities led to complete alienation from her friends. Ng Yik Yu Gloria
align Bring, come, into agreement, close co-operation Newspapers traditionally align themselves with one political party. The two weaker countries aligned to fight the stronger country. Yiu Wing Hei
allay to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity To allay citizen's hardship by cutting tax and increasing welfare I say sorry to him to allay his anger Henry Mak
Allay Ease Secretary for Environment, Transport and Works Sarah Liao Sau-tung yesterday moved to allay fears of a cutback on new jobs as a result of the re-prioritising of infrastructure projects Father helped to allay her fears. Wu Hoi Kit
allay To calm or pacify Secretary for Environment, Transport and Works Sarah Liao Sau-tung yesterday moved to allay fears of a cutback on new jobs as a result of the re-prioritising of infrastructure projects. Going to have a match with the former NBA champion team, Mr. Lee allays the fears of his players to help them play enjoyably. Lee Ching Frederick
allegation An assertion made in the absence of proof Such a retreat could deal a political body-blow to Mr. Tung, with allegations that he is in the pocket of the developers, although market forces look to be ruling out another policy fudge. Li Ka-shing urged the government to curtail the HOS sales, with an allegation that the HOS was in direct competition with the private-sector housing. Karen Kong
allege state; argue; assert Hundreds of individuals and companies allege that the Port Authority was negligent for failing to implement proper security measures despite recommendations, for example, to close underground parking garages to the public. Many people allege that government should take a role in recovering the stock market. Leo Fan
allege to state without proof The US alleged that Chinese firms had made illegal transshipments. The newspaper reporters allege that the man committed suicide but they have given no proof. Winnie Chan
Allege To produce as argument; declare They allege buyers are in danger of being misled and more needs to be done to regulate property sales and enhance consumer protection. Everyone allege that he stole the jewels, but yet he has not been convicted. Alfred
Alleged (adjective) so-called the alleged terrorist attack on the French tanker a week ago shows just how vulnerable the west could be. the alleged allied force was easily defeated by Napoleon Quon Fu Wah
allegiance Loyalty, faithfulness, devotion They bought into a supporter base big on numbers, strong on national allegiance and pretty demand keen on internet shopping. A soldier swears allegiance to the Queen. Lawrence Lau
alleviate To lessen (pain or suffering) If the government does not put in more effort in creating jobs and alleviating unemployment, people will have no confidence to face the winter. To alleviate this bad situation, we should cope with each other. keith yuk
alleviate to make something less severe; to ease something. The figures will doubtless produce more hand-wringing and cries for government action to alleviate the plight of the unemployed. He was given some medicine by his doctor to alleviate the pain. Dorothy Chan
alleviate to reduce we can donate money to alleviate her difficulites in daily life liz lam
alleviate To ease up, to moderate (vb) We will also implement measures to alleviate the difficulties faced by our people. In order to alleviate his pain, the doctor gave him an injection.
alleviate (verb) To make more bearable. To help alleviate the unemployment problems in Hong Kong, the department will try to expedite other construction projects apart from the Disney project. In other to alleviate the examination pressure, we should do 15 minutes exercise after revision. Fun
alliance a close connection made between groups An alliance called !Dprice union!| formed by the nine giants TV set makers in China. The two countries entered into a defensive alliance with each other. Liu Yanju, Liana
Alliance Action or state joins together Entering into strategic alliances or partnerships with other airports, investing in airports in China, providing consultancy or management services to other airports, developing inter-modal transport and logistics services between Hong Kong International Airport and other destinations. United States and China form a trading alliance. Polly Tsui Hoi Yan
Alliance A union, relationship, or connection by kinship etc. Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong legislator Lau Kwong-wah. In the WWII, Britain and U.S. formed an alliance to fight against the Nazi. Peter Poon
alliance an agreement treaty or to group together . This form of alliance will assist the internationalization of the Mainland banking industry in terms of bolstering its capital base and management skills During World War 2, the rest of the Europe had fromed as an alliance in order to against the German. Chu Wing Chun
alliance (n) association or connection The alliance said the government should spend $2 billion to create 23,000 jobs for the unemployed. France had once entered into a military alliance with Britain in the history. Leung Hoi Wah Janette (2001244316)
alliances -- action or state of being joined or associated : association formed for mutual benefit An alternative for smaller businesses in Hong Kong is to consolidate into fewer bigger and stronger alliances to take advantages of economy of scale to improve competitiveness. Some suppliers group together to form an alliance, so as to control the market supply and price of their product. Mok Hoi Man, Emily
alliances join or associated Cultivating alliances with a growing number of product providers. Many film producers in Hong Kong have formed an alliance to fight the problem of pirated CDs. Hui Ka Kit
alliances join or associated Cultivating alliances with a growing number of product providers. Many film producers in Hong Kong have formed an alliance to fight the problem of pirated CDs. Hui Ka Kit (Gary)
allowance sum of money, amount of sth, allowed to sb. The poorest receive the comprehensive social security allowance of HK$2500 a month. His weekly allowance was raised on his birthday. Tang Ning(2002999736)
allure attract The holiday seasons in China have contributed to the growth of China's economy as people are allured to invest in fun and relaxation. Many people were allured by the promises of free gifts. Ma Xumin,Joyce
allure to tempt or attract The holiday seasons in China have contributed to the growth of China!|s economy as people are allured to invest in fun and relaxation. A lot of farmers rushing to the big cities were allured by making money easily. joyce, Ma Xumin
alluring attractive or desirable An alluring prospect, but perhaps improbable. Her alluring face and smile attract many attentions paid on her. Tong Ho Fun (2002023068)
Alluring Attraction, charm An alluring prospect, but perhaps improbable. She was wearing a most alluring dress at Sam's dinner party. corey chan
Ally A country join with another for some special purpose There is the potential for an allied invasion of Iraq. The two little brothers ally to fight against their sister. Karen Wong Ka Yan
also-ran A person who has failed to win or do well Few believe infrastructure guarantees growth yet without it you are an also-ran. If you don!|t work hard, you are doomed to be an also-ran. Chan Man Han
Altruism (n.) Altruism is concern for the happiness and welfare of other people rather than for your own. (Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, p. 42) ! Self !V interest, not altruism, is the mankind!|s main driving force! (The Welfare State, p. 19) If altruism is mankind!|s main driving force, the world must be full of love and peace. Sit Yee Ling, Elaine 2002043795
amass gather or collect something for oneself in large quantities; accumulate On top of that, government agencies generate amass information on large cash transfers, our taxes and employment, driving history. During each war, the monopoly capitalists amassed unbelievable wealth.
amass gather or collect something for oneself in large quantities; accumulate On top of that, government agencies generate amass information on large cash transfers, our taxes and employment, driving history. During each war, the monopoly capitalists amassed unbelievable wealth. Selina Yu
ambiance The special atmosphere or mood created by a particular environment. The plight of impoverished farmers has worsened since 1996, with prices of farm goods declining and the growth in their incomes falling each year. In Hong Kong, with negative impacts on Hong Kong exports as well as the economy of Hong Kong and unfavorable expectations of investors, the investment ambiance was wakened and the Hong Kong Stock Market fluctuated greatly. Choi Wing Yu Raey
ambiguous Having more than one possible meaning; not clear Current analysis may suffer from the surfeit of data, not an insufficiency. And the conclusions are more ambiguous. Economic theory should be clear, unambiguous in meaning. Lee Ho Yin, Joseph
Ambiguous unclear confusing The wording from any circumstances to according to the basic law is much less ambiguous. His saying is so ambiguous that none of us understand. Jessica Tse
Ambiguous Uncertain in meaning or intention. !Bystander effects are most likely in ambiguous situations because people look around to see whether others think there!|s an emergency His smile is very ambiguous which makes me feel very puzzled. Ng Yik Yu Gloria
Ambition The object or goal desired Shanghai has revealed its ambition to turn the Pudong International Airport into a regional aviation hub in competition with other Asian cities, including Hong Kong. He has the ambition to become a war journalist once he graduates in the University. Junie, Chu Ching Man
ambition something that people want to do or achieve very much There are those with large, competing ambitions in the pearl River Delta, most notably the municipality of Guangzhou brings in 30 per cent of the country's total foreign direct investment. Children usually have an ambition of being a doctor. Maggie
ambivalence two opposing feelings at the same time The lingering nostalgia for colonial rule and pervasive public ambivalence toward the new regime Her ambivalence towards marriage prevented her from making the commitment that he so desperately sought. Jessica Tse
ambivalence two opposing feelings at the same time The lingering nostalgia for colonial rule and pervasive public ambivalence toward the new regime Her ambivalence towards marriage prevented her from making the commitment that he so desperately sought. Jessica Tse
ambivalence uncertainty or indecisiveness as to which course to follow Even then, ambivalence towards the legislation was apparent in a proposed amendment to the bill. He shows ambivalence towards any decisions. Peter Lok
ambivalent simultaneous and contradictory attitudes or feelings Saudi Arabia, already fragile politically and ambivalent about supporting America's ware aims. Turkey and the United States are ambivalent allies. LAI MAN KIT (2001473412)
ameliorate cause sth to become better Government will be unable to ameliorate the fiscal deficit. Under the recession in Hong Kong, public is unable to ameliorate their living standard. Raye Wu Wai Lam
Ameliorate (Cause sth. to) become better !The previously available drugs had seemingly little helpful influence except sometimes to ameliorate agitation.! His doctor always asked him to do exercise so as to ameliorate the health condition. Ng Yik Yu Gloria
Amenable Susceptible or open, as to testing or criticism The first is the belief that the real rate is amenable to control by the central bank or government and that the chosen regime for the nominal exchange rate is therefore an important determinant of the real rate. The timetable for the tutorial is amenable zil yau
amend correct an error in The proposal should be amended before handing in to the government. you must amend this document again in order to get higher grade Jacky Chan
amid in the middle of something ..chief executive checks out amid finger pointing... Never leave something amid or else you'll forge it still has to be completed. Mamta Goel
amid Surrounded by; in the middle of China currently prohibits any foreign ownership of telecommunication ventures. As Derek Cheung, HSBC Securities property analyst suggested that the attacks on Afghanistan triggered a downward adjustment in property stocks due to amid turmoil of the price war among the developers Choi Wing Yu Raey
amid (prep) among Amid keen competition, prices are prone to fall further. Amid all the rush and confusion she forgot to say goodbye. Kwok Ying Mei
amidst surrounded by Consumption, however, weakened further amidst concerns over job security and deepening deflation I feel strange amidst many strangers. Choi Lai Yan
ammunition shell We need to leave a little ammunition for the future. How much ammunition did they shoot in training? Lam Wing Yuen Judy
Amount to develop, to attain by 1995,reexports amounted to five times the amount of domestic export. With his intelligence, he should amount to something one day. chuk kai yiu
amount to To add up to But Society for Community Organization spokesman Ng Wai-tung said the cuts did not amount to much because the lack of supermarket competition meant prices were easily controlled. The phone bill he has to pay amounts to $1000 because of the increased charge for the long distance call. Yip Sau Wa
ample enough; large in size; abundant He said the BOJ had been talking with other central banks in the wake of the September 11 attacks in the US on taking steps to provide ample liquidity and stabilise currency markets. There is ample reason to believe that the man is innocent. Josephine Chan
ample Large in degree, kind, or quantity The ample supply of cash may not be enough to overcome a series of attacks. This plan requires an ample investment of resources. Yvonne
Ample Of large or great size, amount, extent, or capacity. But there are ample opportunities beyond manufacturing. This is an ample living room. Yeung Kin Pan
Ample much, plenty; large; spacious Bids are unlikely to be generous given the ample land supply. The ample reserves are affected by the financial crises. CHUNG KWOK CHU(Anthony)
ample More than enough While residential property prices are expected to decline by a further 10% over the coming year, due to ample supply and a lacklustre economy, market participants would still like to see Tung announce a more comprehensive policy package and to act swiftly. There is ample storage space in the new house. Rachel Poon
amplify To make larger or more powerful; increase It is in fact the first time that such a seminar has been held in an accession country to the WTO. However, even under the weak investment atmosphere, the turnover of stock amplified greatly. Choi Wing YU Raey
amusement park (noun ) open area with swings ,roundabouts ,shooting galleries ,etc where one can amuse oneself The Chinese people would like to see more movies and they would like to go to more amusement parks, he said. Tianjian just charges 5% on amusement parks Yokie Kong ( 2001711450 )
anaemic lacking force or vigour; weak. An already anaemic full-year growth figure of 1 per cent seems sure to disappoint. The performance of the banking industry is anaemic due to the devaluation of currency. Dorothy Chan
analogy the act of explaining by comparing one thing with another that is like it in some way There is an analogy between the way water moves in waves and the way light travels. There is the analogy between the increasing of demand to airline and the increasing of demand to insurance Jacky Chan
analyst Person who analyzes. Some prediction and comments of market analysts are also collected. The analysis analyzed by that analysts is great. Ngai Hau Yung
analysts a person who is skill in analysis of chemical substances Analysts expect major losses for the already troubled airline business, which has lost about a week's worth of sales since Tuesday and may have trouble attracting flight-wary traveler. A food analyst is a professional job. Jackie Cheng
Anchor things that can give people sense of security JP Morgan signed on as anchor tenant in October last year The anchor is dropped to make sure the ship is held and fasten to the harbor Hui Tat Wai
anecdotal A brief story of an entertaining character; a short account of some incident. All that is available being anecdotal and expressionistic such as that SMEs occupy 98% of establishments and employ 70% of the labour force. There many anecdotal in my hall life. Cheung Ka Wai,Carrie (2001303021)
anemic Lacking vitality The economic growth is anemic. He looks anemic. Yvonne
announce To make something known by everyone ParknShop was first to announce its schemes, which will run for 16 weeks. The Hong Kong government announces that the unemployment rate in Hong Kong has dropped to 7.6% recently. Yip Sau Wa
anomaly (n.) a person or thing that is different from what is usual, or not in agreement with something else and therefore not satisfactory If a slight physical anomaly is present, the person!|s concern is markedly excessive. People with physical anomalies complain that they are always discriminated by the public. Tse Wing Yan, Cathy
anonymity condition of being unknown American Airlines, the nation's largest airline, will announce layoffs later this week, a company official said on condition of anonymity there is a anonymity after the 11th September event pooh
antagonists (n) person struggling against another; opponent Ecosystems are often defined as a kind of biocoenoses--in other words, as associations of plants, animals and microorganisms, which live together in a given area, always in It is impossible to have no antagonists for any religion. Tracy Tse
anthrax infectious, often fatal, disease of sheep and cattle that can be transmitted to people And, although the University of Michigan's survey of consumer confidence rose slightly in October, the anthrax terror will surely now bruise sentiment. Anthrax attacks cattle, sleep, and sometimes humans. Kwok Hon Ho
anthrax (n.) - Meaning: infectious, often fatal, disease of sheep and cattle that can be transmitted to people - Much depends on the economy's performance in the fourth quarter : when the effects on confidence of the terrorist attacks and the proliferating cases of anthrax may be clearer. gap
anthrax scare A serious disease which attacks sheep and sometimes human But tourism to the capital has evaporated since the bombing of the pentagon, the anthrax scare and threats of more terrorist action. Anthrax scare has spread to Hong Kong. Offices of some legislators have reported to have received powdered letters George Tsoi
anthropological of or concerning scientific study of the nature of man, including the development of his body, mind and society Drawing n anthropological parallels, he and others suggest that myths and fairy tales were derived from, or give symbolic expression to, initiation rites or rites of passage--such as metaphoric death and old, inadequate self in order to be reborn on a higher plane of existence. With there human characters, mythlogy of Gods in Greeks were anthropological. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
anticipated Predicted Hotel operators are drawing up contingency plans for the anticipated slump. It was anticipated that the terrorist attacks would greatly reduce the number of travelers going abroad. Doris Hui
Anticipation expectation; precedence Developers may increase price in anticipation of a rising property market. The anticipation of them would be correct if he won the match. CHUNG KWOK CHU(Anthony)
antipathetic n: antipathy. a strong feeling of dislike or hostility towards someone or something The 'cultural identity' of Britain is antipathetic to Europe. Last year, Mr. Tung is so antipathetic to Mr. Wong that he refused to shake hands with him. Terri Cheung Pui Yi (2002376398)
Apathy (n.) It is a state of mind in which you are not interested in or enthusiastic about anything. !Their behaviour may resemble that of adult depression (loss of appetite or sudden overeating, apathy, anxiety, despair, overwhelming guilt, loss of faith, helplessness, sleep disturbances), but their depression may show itself more indirectly.! ( befrienders/youth1.htm) It is sad to know from a recent survey that the whole society is apathy about political changes. Yu Nga Wai
apocalyptic 1)describing or prophesying a great disaster or total destruction of something. 2)resembling the end of the world. Singapore's leaders have moved to prepare citizens for economic times bordering on the apocalyptic. We were given many apocalyptic visions of the effects of global warming in the talk. Dorothy Chan
apocalyptic become an event of great significance After Sept. 11, when the financial world turned apocalyptic, his only public comments were mindless cheerleading about the strength of the economy. The terrorist attack becomes an apocalyptic event in American History. David
apocalyptic great devastation, doom The Gulf War wrought near apocalyptic results on the economic infrastructure of Iraq, according to an official UN report published in mid-march 1991. The decision of dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was apocalyptic to the inhabitants there. Mak Ho Nam, Eric (2002290219)
appalling causing consternation or dismay The housing of the poorest is appalling. The working conditions in this company are appalling. Peter Lok
apparent Readily perceived by vision and understanding; likely Association chairman Raymond Leung said that over the past 12 months it had become apparent there was a lack of trained staff. It is apparent that logistics has become a new hope for Hong Kong's economy Cheung Chong Wing (Wing)
apparent clearly seen Most recently, the potential posed by deflation, particularly in a financially developed world where debt and balance sheets interact, have become apparent most notably, perhaps, in Japan, he said. It is quite apparent that the government will increase tax in the future. Ho Ka Ming
appeal to make an earnest request Liu appealed for more work-study programs to be provided for such students. The government is appealing to undergraduates to work for a venture company. Selina Yu
appease To satisfy or relieve Legislator and Federation of Trade Unions vice-chairman Leung Fu-wah said the institute's view on cost-cutting should be seen as nothing more than an attempt to appease employers. The speech made by the Chief Executive had no contribution to the situation but appeased many citizens. Lee Ching Frederick
Appetite The desire for some personal gratification, either of the body or mind Either they have a bigger appetite for risk than you thought, or past experience has convinced them that too much technical relevance is bad for the digestion of a good lunch. He loss his appetite for business after his company had closed down. Junie, Chu Ching Man
applaud (v) Praise, approve Mr. Leung's request to employers to explore all possible options before making layoff decisions must be applauded The officials' willingness to receive less would surely be applauded by the public. Vanessa WU
applaud express approval of We can applaud the Housing Authority!|s record. I applaud you for your tactful decision. Tommy
applaud (v) to show approval or enjoyment of Secretary Goretta Lee, 42, applauded abolition of the quota system for mainland tourists. We all applauded the authority's decision not to close the hospital. Rico Chan
apportionment (n) give something as a share; allot something In such case, the Inland Revenue Department will adopt a practical approach and to allow apportionment of profits on the sale of the goods concerned on a 50:50 basis The apportionment of various tasks will be done the team leader. Ho yip chun
Apposite very appropriate I found his speech wholly apposite to the current debate. He made an apposite remark to resolve the argument. Karen Chan
appraisal (n) valuation In this section we discuss project appraisal, which is the method by which firms can actually make decisions toward the maximization of their present values. Appraisal of antiques requires professional technique. Tracy Tse
Appraisal act or instance of appraising; especially: a valuation of property by the estimate of an authorized person (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !Clearly, our appraisal if a situation can contribute to the intensity of our emotional experience.! (Hilgard!|s Introduction to Psychology, p.396) We employ an expert for the appraisal of our property Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
Appraisal An act of appraising These appraisals of economic impact have coincided with an intensifying political debate over the wisdom of an imminent war. The appraisals of our report are in progress. Adam
appraise to evaluate usually in an official capacity; to estimate In July 2000, the Bank was appraised the 32nd of 1000 big banks by Bank Family. The auditors are responsible for appraising the property of a certain company correctly to the public. Selina Yu
appropriate something that is appropriate is correct, suitable or acceptable it is appropriate for the Fed to be stepping on the gas as much as it would in a recession the institutional structure appropriate to each country Mak Ling Kai
Appropriations 1 : an act or instance of appropriating 2 : something that has been appropriated; specifically : money set aside by formal action for a specific use (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !The most salient cases over which the government stumbled included the appropriations for Home Starter Loan in July 1998, and the compensation and loans to poultry operators affected by the bird flu in May 2001.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.364) The appropriation for Michael Suen to put forward the policies which attempt to stabilize the property market is still a question. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
arbitrary based on personal opinion or impulse, not on reason The decision of the government is arbitrary. The reason of you is completely arbitrary. Edwin Lo
arbitrate make a judgement about or settle (a dispute) between two parties (usually when asked by them to do so) In the latest development, Mr Tung has rejected calls to set up a committee of inquiry to arbitrate in the dispute, hence further enraging the civil servants. Mr Wong was asked to arbitrate between the government and the civil servant unions under pay cut. Raye Wu Wai Lam
arbitration the settling of an argument by the decision of a person or group that has been chosen by both sides They would need legal services, especially those related to litigation and arbitration. She agreed to go to arbitration to settle their pay claim. Hui Chi Hao
arbitration (noun) setting of a dispute by a person or people chosen to do this by both sides in the dispute As international business expands in the mainland, Hong Kong has a particular value-adding role to play as an arbitration center. The union finally agrees to go to arbitration as a way of ending the strike. Mok Hoi Man, Emily
ardent enthusiastic Tom is an ardent supporter of the local football team. Jean is an ardent believer of Freud's theories. Karen Chan
ardent showing strong feelings; eager Tung is ardent believers in traditional Chinese values. He's an ardent supporter of the local football team. Jessica Tse
arduous (adj.) needing much effort The n To be a success, you need to go along an arduous road. Meteo
Arduous Hard, difficult But the larger debate continues at the United Nations, where Bush has the more arduous task of persuading the five veto-holding Security Council members- notably France- to approve a new resolution calling for tougher inspections. It is arduous for John to make a public speech in front of the government officials. Oscar Chow
arena a sphere of interest, activity, or competition (n)The challenges we face are all the more daunting because of abrupt changes in the global arena. Every participant in the political arena tries to hide their true preference during the meeting. Catherine Fan
aristocracy government of nobles or other privilege class When the right and means of absolute command are conferred on a people or a king, on an aristocracy or a democracy, a monarchy or a republic, there has been implanted the germ of tyranny. During the French Revolution, many of the aristocracy was guillotined. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
aristocracy government of nobles or other privilege class When the right and means of absolute command are conferred on a people or a king, on an aristocracy or a democracy, a monarchy or a republic, there has been implanted the germ of tyranny. During the French Revolution, many of the aristocracy was guillotined. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
arouse Awaken; Stimulate or excite the plane crash in 911 had aroused the public awareness of airline security His actions aroused the awareness of the soldiers. Ngai Hau Yung
array verb armed forces, troops, etc) in battle order 2. dress or clothe The trainer barked as they hit the statue and started hopping up and down its steps, their incredulous babies arrayed in a semicircle around them. The soldiers were arrayed along the river bank. Ng Quan Lun Alan
arsenal buildings where weapons and ammunition are made or stored Unions have always had this powerful weapon in their arsenal. As a result, the travelling public is affected by the inability of airlines and their employees to reach mutually acceptable employment terms. Knowledge is our arsenal, the more you have, and the more powerful it is. Kenneth Kwong (2001751266)
artery blood vessel; main road leading into a city. But one artery providing access to Hong Kong remains partially blocked This is the place where the three main arteries of West Kowloon traffic meet. Sha Kwok He 200170643
artificially not natural, made by the art of man But I believe the market cannot be artificially maintained. Monetary or fiscal measures are designed to increase employment by artificially pushing up aggregate demand. Tommy
ascendancy Governing or controlling influence (Longman English-Chinese Dictionary P.64) The mankind's ascendancy may hold for the city-state (SCMP 21/11/2002) He slowly gain ascendancy over the group Leung Chi Him
ascertain discover something so that one is certain; get to know After studying the supply and demand schedules, our auctioneer ascertains that at $3.25 per book, the quantities demanded and supplied both equal 300 million books annually. Can you ascertain that the report is accurate? Josephine Chan
aspiration Great desire or ambition for success A vital component of Hong Kong's free market economy and aspirations to be a world class city has been the ability of people from all over the world to arrive and depart around the clock, whether to visit as tourists or do business. The aspirations of football team of China to play in world cup has become reality. Rolen
Aspiration Desire to achieve things If they remain concerned solely with the narrowest definitions of defending the aspiration of their members, they will not take the lead in these new debates about the role of corporation in a globalised world My aspiration is to be a banker. Yeung Kin Pan
aspire To have a strong desire or hope to do or have something Those who aspire to be home purchasers will be benefit from an enlarged number of loans under the Home Purchase and Home Starter Loan Schemes. People who aspire to buy a flat will move back to the private sector. Karen Kong
aspires (verb) To have a strong ambition to achieve something. Hong Kong aspires to become a knowledge-based, world-class city. Aspiring writers were always sending scripts to him. Tony Chung
assemble come together; collect; to put together The whole school (was) assembled in the main hall. The factory workers assemble machines. All the candidates should be assembled in front of the stage. Jacky Chan
assembly a group of people or things The advanced producers often stuck to enlarging their scales and developed themselves by introducing assembly lines and getting more market shares. School assembly will begin at 9 o'clock. Liu Yanju, Liana
Assess (vt.) decide or fix the amount of something  Patients will not only now be assessed according to their financial and clinical conditions but also their social conditions.  My uncle has his house assessed by a valuer Kyle Tang
assessment The act of assessing; appraisal. An amount assessed, as for taxation The Government will propose to legislative council to approve raising tax deduction ceiling for housing loan interest to $150,000 per year for this and the next year of assessment There will be an assessment test for each student st the end of the semester Lai Wai Yin, Priscilla
assessment A consideration of someone or something and a judgement about them. Considerable emphasis is placed on preventing future environmental problems by applying environmental impact assessment procedures to ensure that environmental factors are considered at all stages of planning and project development. There is little assessment of the damage to the natural environment. Chow Kwok Shing
asset market Market trade resources helpful and beneficial in future In addition, asset market of Hong Kong subjected to the influence of the surrounding unstable factor. Price of most items in the asset market are inversely varies with interest rate. Lee Ho Yin, Joseph
assimilate verb 1.(cause sth to)become absorbed into the body after digestion 2.absorb (idea, knowledge, etc)in the mind Together, they form a highly efficient operational network adept at assimilating new knowledge and eager to innovate. Students are expected to assimilate knowledge what they have been taught in class N
assimilate verb 1.(cause sth to)become absorbed into the body after digestion 2.absorb (idea, knowledge, etc)in the mind Together, they form a highly efficient operational network adept at assimilating new knowledge and eager to innovate. Students are expected to assimilate knowledge what they have been taught in class Ng Quan Lun Alan
assurance Guarantee and to offer assurances We have no assurance to get the full marks. Ngai Hau Yung
assurance If you give someone an assurance that something is true or will happen, you say that it is definitely true or will definitely happen, in order to make them feel less worried. Despite countless assurances by the Hong Kong government that its currency will stay pegged to the U.S. dollar, analysts predict money markets are likely to grow increasingly volatile in coming months if the economy continues to deteriorate. Investors would like an assurance that the government will not intervene in the market again. Lin Heung Wing
assurance A statement or indication that inspires a guarantee The financial chief's assurance came as the legislature passed a motion calling for urgent measures to ease unemployment, which stood at 7.6 per cent for the June to August quarter. The assurance of dividend distribution by the director is based on the forecast made by the top investment bank in USA. Lee Ching Frederick
Assurance A statement or indication that inspires confidence; a guarantee or pledge: He also gave an assurance that for the next few years, infrastructure spending would be no less than HK$27 billion a year. Professor Lau give an assurance to us that the exam is very easy zil yau
assure Make certain; ensure The legislation will provide needed tools to assure safety of our airline system. The history assures the success of this country. Yvonne
astonishingly surprise, greatly The unemployment rate is expected to increase astonishingly due to the closure of the business It is believed taht the unemployment rate will rise astonishingly, especially for the impoverished people and hence chaos may easily occur. chloe shek
astounded a shock with surprise If it doesn't happen we'll be pleased, but astounded. The attack of World Trade Center astounded the whole world. Jackie Cheng
astride (adj.) with one leg on each side If the motorcycle was huge, it was nothing to the man sitting astride it. We ride horses by sitting astride. Tung Ka Ki
astute shrewd; clever He made a series of astute business decisions and earned himself a fortune. Kevin is financially astute; he never falls for the tricks that credit card companies play. Stephanie Yeung
Asylum (n.) An asylum is the same as an mental hospital. !Her first cousin on her father's side developed severe mania in his twenties and died within a few years in an asylum.! ( ) If someone with mental illness commits crime, one is put into an asylum instead of prison, even one has murdered others. Yu Nga Wai
at stake in danger Without a vital airline industry, our economic well-being is at stake. The fireman saved the boy who was at stake in the river mouth bravely. Phoebe Chan
atrocities Extremely evil or cruel; monstrous Aircraft were grounded for several days after the atrocities... The anthrax attack by the terrorists is another atrocious attack after the plane attack. Ken Yuen
atrocity very wicked or cruel act As America prepares its response to last week's terrorist atrocities, fears of an imminent retaliatory attack are mounting in Afghanistan. I am shocked by the atrocity of this man's crimes. Kwok Hon Ho
atrocity (n.) - Meaning: great wickedness or cruelty. Stocks and the US dollar fell as investors feared that the bombing could spark fresh terrorist atrocities and further destabilize the world economy. - Example: I am shocked by the atrocity of this man's behavior. gap
Attic The space or room at the top of a building, under the roof, often used for storing things We can each take a packing crate from the attic and row with a wooden spoon. I have boxes of toys in the attic, which I really should throw away. 2002303640
attributable likely to be caused by something a) This was largely attributable to the fixed overheads which could not readily reduce as the overall revenue declined. Lung cancer is attributable to excessive smoking. Chiang Kit Yi Wallis
Attribute caused by or produced by something The increase in unemployment is attributed to decline in domestic consumption. She attributed her success to hard work and a bit luck Ken Wong
attribute an object closely associated with or belonging to a specific person, thing, or office The study found that our deflation was mainly the result of a process of adjustment to cyclical shocks and attributed it mostly to unemployment, nominal credit creation and the nominal effective exchange rate of our currency He attributes his success to good luck Leung Ka Yan Stephanie
attribute something to something Regard something as being caused by something The problem should be attributed to Hong Kong's historical background. The man attributes his wealth to luck Jason Ling
attune Make something/somebody familiar with something Ricky Tam Siu hing, chairman of the Hong Kong Institute of Investors, said he believed the government had been more willing to cut back sales of the Tracker Fund because it had become more attuned to the market following the penny stocks fiasco. We are becoming attune the pace of the training scheme. Chan Man Hei
attune Make something/somebody familiar with something Ricky Tam Siu hing, chairman of the Hong Kong Institute of Investors, said he believed the government had been more willing to cut back sales of the Tracker Fund because it had become more attuned to the market following the penny stocks fiasco. We are becoming attuned to the pace of the training scheme Chan Man Hei
Auction An auction is a public sale where goods are sold to the person who offers the highest price If you auction something, you see it in an auction. They are going to auction the pictures at the end of the month. Harly
auction (n.) A method to sell things to the person who offers the most money for it Representatives of developer T H Yu bid $83 million for a site in Aberdeen, at yesterday's auction. The car could fetch $100000 at auction. Dominic Yik
auctions method of selling things in which each item is sold to the person who offer the most money for it There would be 200 to 300 stalls selling handicrafts and charity sales and auctions would be held from time to time. His house will be sold by auction owing to his bankruptcy. Tsui See Mei Michelle
audit check, review, examination, inspection Most of our clients are Hong Kong listed. No matter what, they still have to do an annual audit, said Bon Ho, a partner at Ernst and Young. wong ka man
audit (v) examine (accounts etc) officially All Group B companies are taxed on estimated profits basis and no need to submit any tax returns or audited financial statements that are certified by registered accountant or auditor. The government will audit our earnings when collecting taxes. Ho yip chun ,Franco
augmented Increased His five-year contract at pounds 1.3 million a year is augmented by the pounds 3.3 million that he will be paid by a Japanese consultancy for marketing his image. Peter augments his income by writing reviews. Lawrence Lau
Austere without comfort; plain and without decoration; severe That is, admittedly, grim news coming after four years of relative austerity, but not so grim as recent predictions about the possible size of this year's fiscal deficit. I had an austere childhood because it was during the war and there were no luxuries then. Tse Wun Man
Austerity Simple in manner of living or acting In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures They practice austerity on that hill for a month. Karen Wong Ka Yan
austerity One thing that is harsh to keep on going That is, admittedly, grim news coming after some four years of relative austerity, but not so grim as recent predictions about the possible size of this year's fiscal deficit. Wartime austerity existed in the 1940s. Yeung Kin Pan
authentication real or true; being in fact what it is claimed to be; to make authoritative or valid Security 3A, authentication, authorisation and administration, is fast becoming the star of the Internet security software market. They used carbon dating tests to serve as the authentication of the claim about the skeleton was 2 million years old. Vincy Tam
autonomous(adj) governing itself (Longman English-Chinese Dictionary P.77) Mayor for autonomous city State (SCMP 21/11/2002) An autonomous city state should be politically experienced Leung Chi Him
autonomy independence; self-determination and self-government The government shall guarantee the right of autonomy of enterprises with foreign investment in managing. The government grants autonomy to a national minority. Selina Yu
Autonomy (n.) 1.The quality or state of being self-governing; especially: the right of self-government 2.Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence 3.A self-governing state (Merriam-Webster !Ds Collegiate Dictionary) !It also requires autonomy of agency-the capacity to make informed choices about what should be done and how to go about doing it.! (Basic concepts in Social Administration, Social Work and Social Administration Lecture Notes, p.3) Tibet always strives to be autonomy, which is independent of China. Cheung Kin Ping
aversion (to sb/sth) a strong feeling of not liking sb/sth. The advisory committee report is too marked by its members' aversion to direct taxation to be acceptable. But at least the issue is now in the public domain. The public has an aversion of an introduction of any form of new taxes. Wong Ho Po
avert ward off Finance minister unveiled a plan to avert such crises. Many traffic accidents can be averted by courtesy. Lam Wing Yuen Judy
aviation airline service, air industry The aviation insurance policy changed in respect of 911 event. The price of aviation insurance premium increased in respect of 911 events Jacky Chan
aviation airplane manufacture, development, and design The agency is particularly gloomy about the outlook for the aviation business. Boeing Company is the leader of the aviation business. Lai Man Kit, Charles (2001473412)
aviation science of flying aircraft Aviation security and national security are linked and that the government should assume some responsibility, said John Heimlich. Aviation security should be improved pooh
aviation science or practice of flying aircraft As the economic reform was primarily conditional The aviation business industry is hitting hard now after the terror attack. a
aviation science or practice of flying aircraft As the economic reform was primarily conditional The aviation business industry is hitting hard now after the terror attack. Anita Lam
aviation The flying and aircraft; The design and manufacturing of aircraft Hong Kong has developed excellent air links with the rest of the world and is the centre of international and regional aviation London is the regional aviation hub in Europe Cheung Chong Wing (Wing)
aviation The aircraft industry. Hong Kong has the comparative advantage of being an international logistics center on the geographical location, efficient aviation and shipping services. The aviation was negatively affected by the 911 terrorist's attack on USA. Henry Li
Aviation aircraft industry Shanghai has revealed its ambition to turn the Pudong International Airport into a regional aviation hub in competition with other Asian cities, including Hong Kong. The aviation business industry has not yet recovered from the 911 terror attack. Cherry Tam
aviation it is the operation and production of aircraft Keith said civil aviation was very important for Hong Kong's future development and a more liberal air services regime was in Hong Kong's interests Aviation provides convenient linkage among countries and it also create many job opportunities. Janice Hui
Aviation (noun) Flying in aircraft. Aviator pilot. Mr Ip said that with the tourism boom, related sectors like hotels and aviation were also planning to expand to cope with increasing demand. I wish to be an aviator when I was small. Tang, Vivian lok Sze (2002 608349)
awareness conception and knowingness on an issue low civil awareness to the importance of tourism even worsens the problem as some Shanghai people may not be so polite towards foreigners Environment awareness is not high among many HK people. Andrew K.M. Li
backbone (noun) The part that gives an organization or system the main strength or unity. SMES form the backbone of our economy. Business people are the backbone of the nation. Tony Chung
backdrop background Against this backdrop, Hong Kong's importance as an intermediary, and this is affecting its future development as an international business centre. The history of the Ching dynasty provides the backdrop of the film. Wong Ka Man Carmen
backlash a strong but usually delayed feeling of opposition among many people towards a belief or practice WTO entry will increase competition within China, which could induce a political backlash against the current policy of opening to the world market. The continual rise in violent crime eventually provoked a backlash against the liberal-gun control. Ricky Biala
Backlash Extreme and usually violent reaction to some event The government can be criticised for its attitude towards many issues, but judging from its vulnerability any attempt to force it into controversial fiscal action may result in a backlash Dissatisfaction about government performance would lead to a backlash Tsang Man Tai
Backlash A sudden backward or adverse reaction That reduces the risk of an international backlash and is therefore worthy of a reduction in the risk premium. The backlash of the economy of Japan is a disaster for the Japanese.. Oscar Chow
backlog A large amount of work, especially that should already have been completed. If it costs f to instantaneously clear one unit of backlog, then the yearly clearing cost will be fyz. I have a backlog of letters to read. lee yik wing
baffle puzzle It baffled visitors. I am baffled by one of the examination questions. Shirley Ng
bail out (phv) to help someone in a difficult situation For one thing ,the Government is concerned about creating a moral hazard-that is ,fostering reckless financial decisions among people convinced of the Government will bail them out. John is so nice and helpful that he always goes to great lengths to bail you out when you have great difficulty. Tam Ho Leung
bailout aid and help usually by government there is a bailout of $15 billion for nation's airlines In order to rescue the industry, the government will proviide a bailout Marian Lam
bailout A rescue from financial difficulties The Airlines cannot survive without the huge bailout from the government. The victims need the bailout from the charities.
bailout A rescue from financial difficulties The Airlines cannot survive without the huge bailout from the government. The victims need the bailout from the charities. Yvonne
bails-out rescue The airline industry seems to bail-out for governments funds The hopeless children are bailing out for the salvation from the rich. Jessie Lui
balloon to get bigger and bigger or rounder and rounder, like a balloon being blown up Finance chief raises fear of ballooning deficit. Weak consumption and huge cost incurred in running businesses make the businesses more difficult to sustain and cause a ballooning unemployment rate. Polly Ng
Ballooning rising, high Financial Secretary Antony Leung Kam-chung said the government was confident it could deal with the ballooning deficit. The ballooning unemployment rate means that the economy has not yet recovered. Ng Wai Wa
ban make a blockade; forbid, prohibit prohibition; boycott, embargo ;ostracism, condemnation; exclusion from a particular channel for a certain length of time The country will also lift its bans on imports of foreign wheat and meat. The Chinese government is imposing a ban on Japanese vehicles. Peter Wong Hon Man (2001436983)
banal commonplace His frequent use of cliches makes his essay banal. We should all avoid banality in writing by avoiding excessive use of cliches. Karen Chan
banality boring ordinariness The beauty of life in Beijing today is the banality of it. Her attractiveness comes from her banality. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
bandwagon popularity Asian airlines have now begun jumping on the global bandwagon to shrink operations Mini skirt is the indicator of bandwagon in this season. Jessie Lui
bankruptcy state of being bankrupt Tuesday's cut was the second since September 1 Bankruptcy rate increased because of poor econmoic situation. Lam Man Chi
bankruptcy State of being bankrupt However, it should be pointed out that the companies with a reasonable prospect for survival will likely be re-organized, whereas the bankruptcy of hopeless firms will release resources to new firms for growth and existing firms for expansion. For those who have a good prospect can actually gain from using the resources released from the bankruptcy firms, hence improvement can be made. chloe shek
Bankruptcy State of being bankrupt Number filing for bankruptcy rises by 90pc but worst may be over The cases of bankruptcies have increased straightly over the past few years. Cheung Lo
barb the sharp part which points backwards from a fish hook or arrow, making it hard to remove it from something, or fig. a remark that is clever but cruel and hurtful Some of the barbs aimed at its management of the economy were misplaced and were simply the psychological product of the bottom of an economic cycle. I tried to ignore their barbs about my new jacket. Tse Wun Man
baron (n)--- important financier or merchant In short, there is still much to be done, and it is work of a kind for which local real-estate baron have shown little enthusiasm. To be an oil baron is a wish of many people ,for they would have money and power if they were. Tam Ho Leung
barrel Large round container The market closed at U.S.$28.63 a barrel. That guy can drink a barrel of water. Ngai Hau Yung
Barrister (n.) In British English, a barrister is a lawyer who speaks in the higher courts of law on behalf of either the defence or the prosecution. (Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, p. 103) ! Andrew Liao is a practicing barrister.! (Accountability without democracy, p. 14) I want to be a barrister after graduation. Sit Yee Ling, Elaine 2002043795
Bastion a part of the wall of a castle Saddam turned the place into a military bastion. The bastion was knocked down by a tank. Penny
Bastion Stronghold A lot of Iraq!|s oil lies in huge virgin fields, discovered in the 1970s before Saddam turned the place into a military bastion and untouched since. The former army bastion turned into a tourist spot in 1970. Oscar Chow
Batch a number of people or things The first batch of eight units at Sorrento phase one was released for sale at the end of last year at an average of HK$3,790 per square foot. The first batch of new pop CD was sold out as soon as it was released. Hui Tat Wai
batch a group of things or people dealt with at the same time or considered similar in type There are also concerns that the proposed sale of the second batch of MTR shares may not go through as expected in the current financial year, delayed by a proposal to merge MTR and Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. The travel agent gave us a batch of holiday leaflets and brochures. Word in the text: Tse Wun Man
batch a batch of things or people is a group of things or people of the same kind, especially a group that is dealt with at the same time The market could not absorb the new batch of school leavers, he said, and any improvement hinged on the export trade and Christmas retail sales. The current batch of trainee are still in the training school Janice Hui
batch An amount produced at one baking; The quantity produced as the result of one operation; the quantity needed for one operation. The first batch will be accepted from September 11 to 18 while the second will be accepted from November 11 to December 5. Not only until this morning, did I receive your batch of letters. Yip Ka Man
batches a number of things to be dealt with at one time This Manual will be rolled out in stages, as batches of modules are finalised. I have batches of homework to finish! Leung Sze Mei, Jasmie
batter To hit repeatedly with heavy blows The Gulf War in 1991 and harsh economic sanctions also battered the economy - crude estimates from the EIU calculate that the economy contracted by 50% that year. The continuous failures in the past examinations seriously battered my confidence for the future ones. Mak Ho Nam, Eric (2002290219)
bazaar group of stalls or shops The official opening of the night bazaar is scheduled to take place on Thursday. The tenants in the bazaar will offer discounts to the shoppers. Shirley Ng
bazaar a place with a group of shops or stalls The waterfront bazaar on Chung Kong Road will feature a flea market, a dinning area offering traditional Hong Kong delicacies and a performance space for arts and entertainment. The British like to sell their unused furniture in a bazaar to get some money. Tsui See Mei Michelle
be driven out of Forced to leave In public housing areas, independent stores have been driven out of business, so the elderly do not have a free choice and often need to travel far to buy goods.' He has been driven out of the committee because of his misconduct. Yip Sau Wa
be entitled to Given the right to do something Under the scheme, senior citizens who spend less than $200 at Parknshop or Wellcome will be entitled to a 10% discount. All children and teenagers in Hong Kong are entitled to enjoy nine-year free eduation. Yip Sau Wa
beachhead strong position on a beach established by an army which has just landed and is preparing to advance and attack Foreign investors view Hong Kong as their beachhead to the Chinese market, especially after the entry. The army stays safely in their beachhead. Man Angela Pui Kei
bearish Bearish means expecting a fall in prices. The deflationary process to get Hong Kong back on to par with the rest of the region stops around mid-next year, said Mr Walker, best known as one of the few analysts to predict the Asian financial crisis, with a bearish call on the Thai baht in early 1997. The overall oil price outlook is expected to remain bearish. Tse Wun Man
beckon (v.) gesture to sb to move in specific direction. ..Providing ample evidence of this is the massive nine-storeyed Time Square shopping mall atop the mammoth Causeway Bay MTR station, beckoning customers for the Christmas shopping. A government officer beckoned us over. Dominic Yik
beef up to increase The government also could help the airlines by assuming the costs of beefing up security. The school should beef up the IT equipment. Phoebe Chan
behest a command, a request Electronic trading networks, a primary source of before-hours information, delayed trading in stocks at the behest of securities regulators. The student redoes his homework at the behest of the teacher. Jackie Cheng
beleaguer harass somebody continually Recent data hinted that the beleaguered manufacturing sector, which has borne the brunt of a year-long slowdown in the general economy, was beginning to recover before the attacks Mary is alwasys beleaguerd by her naughty son. David
Beleaguer Besiege or attack; harassed (Longman English-Chinese Dictionary P.109) Prime Minister backs beleaguer Takenala on bank reforms. (SCMP 24/10/2002) The girl was surrounded by a group of unmanagable brats who relentlessly beleaguered her. Leung Chi Him
beleaguer to agitate mentally or spiritually It cannot help beleaguered consumers. If you are considerate enough, you will give a hand to those beleaguered patient. Leung Ka Yan Stephanie
beleaguered 1. besiege somebody or something 2. harass somebody continually The cabinet may decide on measures to save the beleaguered carrier A Santa Claus is beleaguered by some naughty children Sammy CH Li
bemoan To mourn over, lament Even Nato member Turkey has bemoaned Iraq's economic isolation - it says it has lost about $40bn because of trade restrictions since the Gulf War. The public bemoaned for the death of a great singer. Mak Ho Nam, Eric (2002290219)
benchmarks (noun) A mark on a fixed object stating the height above sea level, as a reference point in surveying. We would like to see the Government's a specific plants, initiatives, and benchmarks for translating the grand vision into reality. Having used economic criteria as the sole benchmark for establishing success, value, or achievement. Tony Chung
beneficiaries persons who receive sth or gain from sth. Young people have been the main employment beneficiaries of the tourist boom. The taxpayers would be the victims of the construction of the Disneyland, but none would seem to be the beneficiaries. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
beneficiaries people who receive a benefit The demogrants are an important component in relation both to expenditure and to the number of beneficiaries. Most of the beneficiaries in this scheme are the elderly.
beneficiaries people who receive a benefit The demogrants are an important component in relation both to expenditure and to the number of beneficiaries. Most of the beneficiaries in this scheme are the elderly. Peter Lok
beneficiary someone who gets advantages from an action or change. This leads analysts to the conclusion that the chief beneficiaries of a wage hike would be approximately 320,000 foreign laborers working on the island. The rich are the main beneficiaries of the tax cuts. Caroline Yu
benign (of the people or actions) kind, gentle Commentary is again focusing on the costs of the pegged exchange rate although a concomitant spike in short term interest rates remains a blip on an otherwise benign curve. He is a benign person and always smiles. Chan Man Hei
bereaved suffering the loss of a loved one : A social insurance scheme that requires all those in employment to contribute towards the elderly, disabled and bereaved families would provide an immediate response to much deprivation. A bereaved family needs concern very much. Peter Lok
bereft (adj.) someone no longer has something Even mainly Hindu Bali is bereft, with once lively temple guides reduced to begging. The place seemed to be utterly bereft of human life. wong ka man 2001240011
Berth A space in a harbour where a ship stays for a period of time It would also make possible the construction of deep water container berths. There are not enough berths to meet the demand of the growing transport industry. Jennifer Li
beset disturbance People have been beset by the unemployment for nearly 3years. I am beset by the barking of dogs every night, I can't be patient anymore. Leung Mei Fun
Besieged To press in an annoying way, to surround Protestors besieged the French base in Abidjan to demand the handover of opposition leader Alassane Ouattara, accusing him of responsibility for the September 19 rebellion. The workers besieged outside the construction site request for a negotiation with the developer. Oscar Chow
bestow use and allocate More than a few lawmakers question whether the government ought to bestow such generous taxpayer largess upon the airlines. The HK government bestowed a large sum of money to fight against the speculators in 1997. Phoebe Chan
bet To risk money on the result of a future event Parents think gambling will encourage children to bet. I never bet money on football gambling. Maggie Chow
bewildered to confuse Industries, such as garment and textiles, toys, electronics and watch-making, have been neglected in the process of economic changes rendering many small and medium enterprises bewildered and helpless Big city traffic bewildered me. liz lam
bias mental tendency Chinese people have a bias towards boys. I have the bias towards IBM when choosing the computer. Edwin Lo
Bickering Quarrels over unimportant things Such an important regional project should not be left to the bickering of local special interests. The meeting is expected to end months of political bickering. Jennifer Li
Bid Attempt to attain; to invite; to propose a price Developers are unlikely to bid lavishly for Tiu Keng Leng Station project, with flats and land plentiful nearby There is a rich man bids $1 million dollars for a painting Alfred
Bidder one who proposes a price at a public auction. The bidder that offers the highest share of profits will win. In order to attract more bidders, the company should promote more attractively. CHUNG KWOK CHU(ANTHONY)
Bilateral of affecting upon two sides To make it happen, however, Mr Jiang and Mr Bush need to reach strategic understanding at global, regional, and bilateral levels. Meaning: The countries with bilateral trade agreements tend to support each other in international conference Cherry Tam Hiu Yan
bilateral having two sides The governments of most high-incomes countries have in recent years undertaken important aid programs, both bilaterally and multilaterally, and have thus demonstrated their interest in the development of low-income countries. Bilateral negotiations took place between India and Pakistam. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
bilateral (adjective) having two sides; affecting or involving two parties, countries etc. In the recent bilateral agreement with the USA over WTO accession, China agrees on expanding foreign access to the legal sector. China has to sign a bilateral agreement with US before its WTO accession. Mok Hoi Man, Emily
Bizarre Strange; queer It is a bizarre change of attitude, he said. The increase in price level was bizarre. Wu Hoi Kit
bizarre conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual It is a bizarre change of attitude, he said. Professor Steven Cheung!|s The Theory of Share Tenancy was a bizarre view of the effect of share contract before the 19th century. Lee Ching Frederick
blandness not irritating, stimulating, or invigorating In recent years, blandness and conformity have pushed out the daring and the innovative. I am not attracted to stories with blandness and I think they are too boring for me. Choi Lai Yan
blast criticize severely Critics have blasted the public order law as a violation of the city's guaranteed rights of free speech and assembly. The magazine was blasted by readers since it contained bad contents. Chan Kit Chung
blast an explosion, or a sudden rush of air caused by an explosion Nearly half of the 191 people killed in the blasts were from Australia. Several homes were destroyed by the blast. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
Blast Sudden explosion While looming prospect of a supply disruption from the key Middle East region still hangs over the market- particularly after this week!|s tanker blast off Yemen and the attack on US Marines in Kuwait- attention has also shifted back toward market fundamentals. The blast outside Mr A!|s home frightens his little daughter Mary. Oscar Chow
blatant very obvious The people who work in McDonaldized organizations are also controlled to a high degree, usually more blatantly and directly than customers. His ambition to be the Chairman is quite blatant.
blatant very obvious The people who work in McDonaldized organizations are also controlled to a high degree, usually more blatantly and directly than customers. His ambition to be the Chairman is quite blatant. Tim Kwok (2002108478)
blazing Firing, flare Japan has also seen several of their players move to Europe, with Nakata blazing a trail across Series A after originally joining Perugia for around 3.5 million dollars. When the firemen arrived, the whole building was blazing. Lawrence Lau
bleak (of a situation) not hopeful or encouraging. Sales levy could make economic outlook even bleaker. The future will be bleak for the tertiary industry in Hong Kong if the trend of people going to consume in China remains unabated. Wong Ho Po
bleak (esp. of a place or the weather) cold and not welcoming, or (of a situation) hopeless Researchers at HSBC present an even bleaker picture. In the long term, the economic outlook is bleak. Tse Wun Man
Bleak If a situation is bleak, it is bad, and seems unlikely to improve. Although the prime lending interest rate is at a record low, property prices remain sluggish because people are concerned about unemployment and the bleak economic outlook. It is still raining; the weather is quite bleak that we cannot go camping tomorrow. Gordon Ho
Bleak hopeless and unpleasant !Researcher at HSBC presents an even bleaker picture. They believe the deficit will soar to $68.3 billion, because of an expected drop of $30 billion in government income.! Most of economists also have a bleak thinking that the Hong Kong economy is unable to revive shortly. Ryan Wong Siu Fung
Bleak not hopeful or encouraging !Researcher at HSBC presents an even bleaker picture. They believe the deficit will soar to $68.3 billion, because of an expected drop of $30 billion in government income.! The future looks bleak for the fishing industry Ivy Yu Nga Yan
bleak Not hopeful or encouraging; gloomy The outlook for Hong Kong's unemployment rate remains bleak and the figure is not expected to show any improvement until at least February next year, Bank of East Asia economist Paul Tang said. The future looks bleak. Wilson Lam
bleak not hopeful or encourage; dismal; gloomy Economic data published since September 11th have, not surprisingly, been bleak. The company's prospects look pretty bleak Kwok Hon Ho
Blend mixture MPFS are in effect a blend of the sorts of reform carried out in Chile, Argentina and Australia over the past two decades, but !customized! for Hong Kong!|s special needs. The bar tender is making a drink by blending whisky with vodka.
blip 1 spot of light on a radar screen. 2quick popping sound. Commentary is again focusing on the costs of the pegged exchange rate although a concomitant spike in short term interest rates remains a blip on an otherwise benign curve Blips in red color on the screen are our enemies. Chan Man Hei
blitzes a period of great activity for some special purpose Chinese law enforcement continues to be an adjunct to sporadic political campaigns accompanied by propaganda blitzes and the setting of quotas and targets. Advertising blitzes to get people to buy more cigarettes are increasing. Ricky Biala
bloated swollen with gas The temporary bloated balance sheet of the Fed is now shrinking back to normal. I've had eat so much that I feel very bloated. Hermi Chan
bloated Expand The possibility for the airline lines to be bloated up is very small. Mr. Brown is angry and his face is bloated. Jessie Lui
bloc (noun) group of countries or parties united by a common interest Shi said China will work for the achievement of a bilateral agreement on the WTO with the United States at an early date in accordance with the joint statement, which will pave the way for China's entry into the world trading bloc. China was formally recognized as a member of the international trading bloc ,its door opens to the other western countries. Yokie Kong ( 2001711450 )
blockbusters a successful film Though Hong Kong reverted to Chinese rule in 1997, films made here are still classified as !foreign! and have to compete against top Hollywood blockbusters for the limited number of slots. Shaolin Soccer was a blockbuster which won widespread popularity both in Hong Kong and overseas. Chan Ka Yan, Karen
blow a hard hit The US job market suffered its heaviest blow in more than to 2 decades as the full impact of the terrorist attacks struck its economy this exam result is a blow for me Mak Ling Kai
blowout to be driven out by the force Government should cut spending in the face of an anticipated budget deficit blowout He has a blowout and crashed his car Henry Mak
blueprint a detailed plan or scheme But most legislators were disappointed with his proposals and the business community said the policy blueprint would not help to revitalize the economy. The government has described its manifesto as a blueprint for the future. Dorothy Chan
blueprint a photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house or other structure The Government should formulate a 10-year long-term industrial policy as a blueprint for industrial redevelopment. The report is a blueprint for the reform of the nation's tax system liz lam
blueprint print of plan A new body charged with formulating a blueprint for Hong Kong!|s future manpower development is to meet for the first time. The plans for improving the educating system have only reached the blueprint stage so far. Lam Hon Wai, Kelvin
blueprints A photographic copy of a plan for making a machine or building a house or other structure However, before governments in the region can convene to thrash out the blueprint, a bitter row must be settled. The report is a blueprint for the reform of the nation!|s tax system. Chan Man Han
blunder (n) Stupid or careless mistake. To help keeping their fingers on the public pulse before they make their next political blunder. People no longer trust the SAR Government after numerous political blunders. Vanessa WU
blunders stupid unnecessary mistake it have strategic blunders in recent year, had been severely criticized for its customer service long before Sept 11. it is recommended to focus on the blunder of the airline industries pooh
Blunders a gross error or mistake resulting usually from stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !In case of serious government blunders or scandals, the Legco can set up an investigation committee that, under the Power and Privileges Bill, has the power to summon government officials to give evidence.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.362) That blunder was attributed to his arrogance. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
bluntly (adv) roughly and plainly (Longman English-Chinese Dictionary P.137) Christine Shister talked to Gus a little more bluntly about his duty To speak bluntly, that student is sure to fail Leung Chi Him
Blush To become pink in the face I start stuttering and blushing and I twist my words around so much I finally have to stop. I hate to be the centre of attention; I’ll start blushing and feel uncomfortable. 2002303640
boast Possess (sth.) with pride However, commercial banks, the largest of which boasted tens of thousands of branches around the country, were likely to retain a competitive advantage in absorbing deposits Our university boasts an excellent library. Hau Hoi Wan
boffin a scientific expert The boffins at the EIA suggest that OPEC's efforts will come to naught. I want to become a boffin after graduated. Lai Man Kit, Charles (2001473412)
bog Sink into mud or wet ground, (cause something to) become stuck and unable to make progress To be effective, the review of civil service salaries must avoid getting bogged down in political infighting and work towards building a consensus of opinion, writes Anthony Cheung. We are bogged down into the mud. Chan Man Hei
bolster to give necessary support and encouragement Unionist legislator Leung Yiu Chung urged Mr Tung to tale long term measures to bolster the faltering economy. My parents usually bolster up my pride. Lee Man Fung, Richard
bolster To support or make stronger The move is an attempt to bolster confidence in the local economy by boosting the property sector. She tried to bolster my confidence by telling me that I had a special talent. Karen Kong
bolster support ; help Government needs to bolster the businessmen. The evaluation covers economic and social aspects in bolstering and repudiating this suggestion. Polly Ng
bolster to support Several companies have taken steps to bolster confidence via stock buybacks. The government can carry out some measure to bolster people to invest. The price cuts are sure to bolster demand for their products Jackie Cheng
bolster give support to somebody or something A careful and flexible move on the fiscal side will really have more effect on bolstering confidence and resuming demand than monetary policy The government borrowed money to bolster up the economy. David
bolster Support, give support to Falling interest rates may help to bolster up the economy They cut down the prices to bolster up the demand. Yiu Wing Hei Rex
bolster To support with a pillow or cushion; prop. Upgrading the Hong Kong pavilion at overseas trade fairs so as to help bolster the image. The beams bolstered the roof of the cabin. Cheung Ka Wai,Carrie (2001303021)
bolster (v)Give support so something, reinforce or strengthen something Mr. Tung's Policy Address earlier this month outlined a number of measures to bolster consumer and business confidence To save tourism in Hong Kong, friendly manners to tourists must be bolstered. Vanessa WU
bolster give support to sb/sth; strengthen or reinforce sth a package of civil service pay cuts and modest tax increases to reduce the government deficit y $10 billion would bolster confidence in Hong Kong, according to an executive councilor. In many countries, government would borrow money to bolster the economy. Raye Wu Wai Lam
Bolster (n.) a long pillar or cushion; (v.) to support with as if with a bolster; reinforce It is understood the four operations are all under consideration by the government to bolster the market. It is very important for society to bolster those people with mental retardation. Wong Kwai Man
Bolster (v) Support, give support to, e.g. a cause, theory, etc that would otherwise fail. (n) Long under-pillow for the head of the bed The economic team has to prove that it can be as effective in bolstering the economy as the Administration has been in battling terrorism. The government tries to bolster the property market by reducing the construction of housing estates. Kong Sze-wan
bolster If you bolster someone's confidence or courage, you make them more confident or more courageous So attempts to bolster asset prices when demand by end-users is weak looks destined to fail Without any fringe benefit, it!|s difficult to bolster morale. Gordon Ho
bolster up give support to somebody or something; reinforce This will help bolster up Hong Kong's position as a regional insurance center. The government should adopt some practical issue to bolster up local economy during recession. Emily Mok
bolstering to support or back up. This form of alliance will assist the internationalization of the Mainland banking industry in terms of bolstering its capital base and management skills The main element for bolstering the Hong Kong economy is its large amount reserve. Chu Wing Chun
bombastic pompous and empty His bombastic speech offended his audience. It is small wonder that he failed to win the debate-his speech was so bombastic!
bombastic pompous and empty His bombastic speech offended his audience. It is small wonder that he failed to win the debate-his speech was so bombastic! Karen Chan
Bonanza something yielding a rich return But what is at stake is not instant bonanza that so vast a reserve might suggest. Hong Kong youngsters tend to focus on bonanza in a short time. Lau Cheuk Ki Steven
Bonanza (noun) mine a United States-led ouster of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein could open a bonanza for US oil companies long banished form Iraq. the joining of China into WTO gives a bonanza to all investors Quon Fu Wah
bonanza (noun), (adj) prosperity, large output, run of luck. Proven acceptance of Hong Kong-branded apparel products targeting the medium-to-high end of the mainland market will plant the seeds for the next bonanza. The year 2001 is no doubt a bonanza year for China. Francis Lam
Boom (v.) thrive, be active, flourish In view of the present economic situation, the booming effect of the policy is still not significant. During this period, the government tends to make use of budget deficit as a tool to boom up the expenditure of the general public Hui
Boom (v.) thrive, be active, flourish In view of the present economic situation, the booming effect of the policy is still not significant. During this period, the government tends to make use of budget deficit as a tool to boom up the expenditure of the general public Hui Hiu Yan Fiona
boon Something very useful or helpful It is definitely a boon to Hong Kong. The radio is a great boon to the blind. Chan Man Han
boost a push upwards The agreement was hailed in boosting the growth and strength of the world economy. That holiday has been a boost to our spirit. ZANG YU
boost To raise or lift by pushing up from behind or below Actively tapping the market to boost arrivals for leisure travel as well as business travel for private and state-owned enterprises. The increase in spending of Mainland travelers is expected to boost Hong Kong economy Lawrence Kam
boost To improve Legalizing soccer betting helps to boost up the football market. Let's try to boost his self-confidence. Chow Man, Maggie
boost (verb) To lift by or as if by pushing up from behind or below. The Hong Kong Construction Industry Employees' General Union said the rise in small to medium-sized public works projects would boost demand for construction workers. For the government, they should think of more methods to revive and boost our economy as soon as possible. Fun
Boosting To increase; raise: boost prices; efforts to boost participation in the program Boosting property prices by administrative measures can only have a short-term impact. Boosting is a general method of producing a very accurate prediction rule by combining rough and moderately inaccurate rules of thumb. Tang Pang Fei
bottom out To reach the lowest point before rising again Near term, the market is pretty well stretched, so a pullback would almost be desirous so we can bottom out, then go back on a run. The interest rate bottomed out at 2% and now starts to rise again. George Tsoi
Boulevard A wide road in a city I tell you she was walking in front of me, staggering down the boulevard. The government replaced the narrow streets with wide boulevard. 2002303640
bounce spring away from surface Most people are too busy getting on with their own lives to pay much notice to a bunch of old boys bouncing around with exaggerated self-importance within narrow, fenced-in boundaries. He is bouncing a tennis ball against a wall. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
bounce (v.) - Meaning: spring back when sent against something hard Wall Street bounced back from a shaky opening on Thursday, although the energy sector and some technology stocks remained weak. - Example: Peter came bouncing into his room. gap
bounced to jump suddenly But European markets bounced off their earlier lows, offering some signs of support for U.S. markets. The ball hit the wall and bounced off it. Jackie Cheng
bound up with dependent on It is certainly bound up with factors such as religion, culture, family and a sense of pride. His future is closely bound up with that of his company. Leung Sze Mei, Jasmie
bowed to yield in defeat or out of courtesy The government bowed to the strong pressure from the business community, academics and China. The employers bow to the strike by the workers. Peter Lok
brace Prepare a support to make stronger or prepare oneself for a shock (vb) Mr Tung warned that the outlook was gloomy and said the community should brace itself for worse to come. We braced ourselves for any unexpected arrest during the demonstration.
brace Prepare a support to make stronger or prepare oneself for a shock (vb) Mr Tung warned that the outlook was gloomy and said the community should brace itself for worse to come. We braced ourselves for any unexpected arrest during the demonstration. Catherine Fan
bracelet piece of jewelry worn around the wrist. Miss Chui said, pointing to a jade bracelet priced at $150 which would cost about $200 in Hong Kong She wore huge bracelets on her wrists. Sha Kwok He 200170643
brainchild people!|s ideas or invention Hence his brainchild- ING financial planning- which aims to help Hong Kong get up to speed with a professional advisory industry. Some of the big supermarkets have a brainchild to allow the elderly to purchase products at a discount. Hui Ka Kit (Gary)
brainchild people!|s ideas or invention Hence his brainchild- ING financial planning- which aims to help Hong Kong get up to speed with a professional advisory industry. Some of the big supermarkets have a brainchild to allow the elderly to purchase products at a discount. Hui Ka Kit
brainstorming A method of solving problems in which all the members of a group suggest ideas and then discuss them A brainstorming session. Brainstorming is useful for learning. Ricka Man
brand To give a bad name to something or someone But the cuts drew criticism from one concern group which branded the scheme 'cheeky' and said the cost of groceries generally was too high. He is isolated in school because of his cheeky manner. Yip Sau Wa
brand To give a bad name to something or someone But the cuts drew criticism from one concern group which branded the scheme 'cheeky' and said the cost of groceries generally was too high. people brand him 'irresponsible' because of the scandal. Yip Sau Wa
brand a class of goods identified by name as the product of a single firm or manufacturer 42.7% of respondents said they would develop their own brand names on the mainland Coca-cola is considered to be a very successful brand worldwide with a high business reputation Lee Yue Kai
Brazen If you describe someone as brazen, you mean that they are very bold and do not care what other people think James is extremely brazen, he fought with the boy up in front of everyone else. If you have done something wrong and you brazen it out, you behave confidently in order not to appear ashamed.
breach opening, broken place, gap The rate is expected to breach 5.5 percent by the year end The cows got out of the field after one of them had made a breach in the hedge. Tam Yuen Lam
Breach 1 : infraction or violation of a law, obligation, tie, or standard 2 a : a broken, ruptured, or torn condition or area b : a gap (as in a wall) made by battering 3 a : a break in accustomed friendly relations b : a temporary gap in continuity : HIATUS 4 : a leap especially of a whale out of water (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !Secondly, the Legco has the power of impeachment if the CE has a !Dserious breach of law or dereliction of duty!| (Article 73(9)), although the power of dismissal lies with the Central Government.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.352) Although the President has a breach of law, he is still in power without being arrested. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
Breach (v.) a failure to do something that must be done by law During 2001, there were 6775 prosecutions for breaches of various ordinances and regulations administered by the Labour Department. Selling goods constituted a breach of regulation 111. Wong Man Chun
Breed (noun) Kind or variety (of animals etc) with hereditary qualities. If Hong Kong is to respond successfully and turn a potential crisis into an opportunity, it must carefully nurture a new breed of professionals. We sold a good breed of cattle at the market yesterday. Tang, Vivian Lok Sze (2002 608349)
breezed Something, such as a task, that is easy to do. They could have breezed from their taxi to plane seat in minutes. A secondary school student easily breezes through homework of primary school. Ken Yuen
bribe (n.) sth given to sb to influence him to do sth Bribing mainland authorities is their(illegal mainland workers) way to Hong Kong. The policeman recieved a bribe of $500 to keep his month shut. Dominic Yik
brink an edge The whole industry is on the brink of destruction. His failures brought him to the brink of ruin. Liu Yanju, Liana
brinkmanship pursuit of a dangerous policy to the limits of safety Negotiations are about brinkmanship. The pilots should know they are pushing themselves over the edge. Actually, it is not plausible to agree with this brinkmanship, but there is no other strategy to deal with this problem. Kenneth Kwong (2001751266)
Broadest The general The Composite Consumer Price Index, the broadest measure for inflation, fell 3.7. percent last month from a year ago, the Census and Statistics Department said. Can you give me the broadest definition of Money supply? Lee hoi Tung
brought to heel submit to discipline and control Even the powerful British civil service was brought to heel. Those rebellious students were brought to heel by teachers. Henry Pang
brunt Direct effect or shock. Malaysia and Thailand bore the brunt of the effects of the slowing global economy because of their higher export-to-GDP ratios and relatively high concentration of ICT (information, communication and technology) products in their exports The airline industry bear the brunt of the effects of the September 11 terror attack. Alan
brunt bear the chief stress or strain, resist the weight. China's debt-ridden banks, along with the securities industry, are expected to bear the brunt of further liberalization of the financial services market in the wake of China's WTO entry. US airline industry bears the brunt of losing its customers after the 911 Attack. Chan Oi Shan
Brunt the main force (especially something unpleasant) !A civil service union last night accused Mr Leung of making public servants bear the brunt of budget cuts.! The people of this area have taken the brunt of the missile attacks. Ryan Wong Siu Fung
Brunt receive the main force of sth unpleasant !A civil service union last night accused Mr Leung of making public servants bear the brunt of budget cuts.! Schools will bear the brunt of cuts in government spending Ivy Yu Nga Yan
brunt resist the pressure The consequences of targeting a fixed exchange rate are that Hong Kong has relinquished control over its monetary policy to the United States, while its domestic costs and prices have had to bear the full brunt of adjustment to external shocks, the bank said. If the government terminates the Home Ownership Scheme, the middle class will bear the brunt of this change. Ho Ka Ming
brutality cruelty, savagery Other studies conducted in the armed forces corroborate the findings that men accused of brutality toward those they command feel little or no sense of remorse or guilt, but tent to defend vigorously the 'correctness of their actions. The brutality of the terrorists shock the whole world. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
brute not involving thought or reason; unthinking In brute terms of lives and property lost, the terrorist attacks are somewhat akin to natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes and earthquakes. She beat him up with brute force. Kwok Hon Ho
buck resist or oppose (sb/sth) Now, he is passing part of the buck to lawmakers who will be asked to legislate the pay cut. It is impossible to buck the system once it is legalized. Raye Wu Wai Lam
buckling Fasten tightly Consumer confidence, already buckling in the month before the attack, not surprisingly continued to sink in its wake. People's desire to travel to the U.S. has buckled after the terrorist attacks. George Tsoi
budget Financial plan The budget deficit could be resolved within years by stabilizing the ailing property market The committee has to set the budget before holding this activity CHUNG KWOK CHU (Anthony)
bulge to stick out or be swollen Last week, credit rating agency Standard & Poor's cut its outlook on Hong Kong's long-term local currency rating to negative from stable, citing persistent economic weakness in the territory and the bulging deficit. He chewed the toffee, his cheeks bulging. Tse Wun Man
bulk the volume or size is great the cost is lower when the company buying the goods in bulk. the price is when you buy in bulk. Edwin Lo
Bullish A rise in share prices. Strategists have been quite bullish on Asian equities, most of which have made substantial gains as a result of the improving United States economy and a rise in exports. The sculpture !V bull, at the Wall Street, symbolized investors!| hope to have bullish economy. Jessica
Bulwark Something that protects you from dangerous or unpleasant situations 'Until Korea, a prosperous Japan was not on: it was to be kept poor. After Korea, it became a much-needed a bulwark against communism My savings were to be a bulwark against unemployment. corey chan
bumper unusually large and plentiful Cheung Kong set for bumper year with sales revenue doubling Farmers reap a bumper harvest in this year with good weather Gordon HO
Bungled to do badly What followed was a bungled attempt at a managed deflation using rigid supply targets and expanded subsidized home-for-sale schemes. The great artist’s clay statue was bungled because of careless handling by the workers. Wong Kwai Man
buoy keep something at a high or satisfactory level This buoys consumer spending and fortifies a sick economy. Her spirits were buoyed up by hopes of success. Josephine Chan
buoyancy capacity for floating :the buoyancy of the market /a mood of buoyancy /a buoyancy aid (= sth to help you float) Observers say it will take some time before the market develops any buoyancy despite recent simulative moves by the government. The buoyancy of the market depends on the effectiveness of the government's new economic policy. Wong Ho Po
buoyancy Lightness of spirit; cheerfulness China currently prohibits foreign banks from doing renmimbi business with Chinese clients, and imposes stringent geographic restrictions on the establishment of foreign banks. As a result, investors no matter big or small lost buoyancy upon the economic future of Hong Kong Choi Wing Yu Raey
buoyant successful, with a lot of activity Yet, China's economy still seems, on the face of it, to be relatively buoyant. Despite the recession, the property market remained buoyant. Ricky Biala
buoyant Having positive indications OPEC already has sliced 3.5 million bpd from production limits this year to keep prices buoyant. It is expected that China will be a buoyant economy after enter WTO. Lai Man Kit, Charles (2001473412)
buoyant able to float or to keep things floating; lighthearted; springy; (of the stock market, etc.) maintaining high prices. Buoyant stock markets have underpinned Beijing's reform efforts, with plentiful savings providing the capital to fund industrial restructuring. People who have a buoyant disposition can usually overcome adversities more easily than those who are pessimistic can. Chan Oi Shan
buoyant tending to rise or improve It is difficult to trace this market segment in many of the recent statistics on UK tourism but it is known that the sector is still buoyant. The government conceded that the employment condition would become buoyant, but that turned out to be a fairy tale. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
Buoyant floating, tending to rise China!|s economy surged ahead in the third quarter, growing 8.1 per cent on the back of booming exports, high government spending and buoyant consumer activity. Share prices will be buoyant in the next few days due to the announcement of decline in unemployment rate. Cherry Tam Hiu Yan
bureau a system or management with many layers. Most of the government is a bureau organization. Heavy cost and redundency staff will occur in the bureau organiztion. Chu Wing Chun
bureaucracy a system of government by a large number of officials in various departments; (often used in a critical way) the system of official rules that an organization has for doing something, that people often think were too complicated We don't need a big bureaucracy any more. With all the bureaucracy involved, it takes ages to get a visa. Ricky Biala
bureaucracy System of government through departments managed by State officials, not by elected representatives There are three keys aspects to the deal- opening markets, reducing tariff and the reduction of bureaucracy. People always complain about having to deal with too much bureaucracy. Anita Lam
bureaucracy management or administration marked by hierarchical authority among numerous offices and by fixed procedures The government!|s proposal would achieve the same goal more cheaply and with less bureaucracy. The new department head did not know much about bureaucracy. Peter Lok
bureaucracy Administration of a government chiefly through bureaus or departments staffed with nonelected officials. In any bureaucracy, any democracy. There are competing ideas and different ways of doing things. Bureaucracy is supposed to be about scientific (operational and administrative) management. It is far from the aesthetics and poetics of quest and postmodern organization. Tang Pang Fei
bureaucratic official working in a government department ...partly from bureaucratic squabbling within the governments that controlled the acquired airlines. A bureaucratic government is very inefficient Sammy CH Li
Bureaucratic Means involving complicated rules and procedures which can cause long delays. Cutting the expenditure of the government before it is hopelessly bureaucratic is a right direction. I feel disappointed with such a bureaucratic government Yeung
Bureaucratic Means involving complicated rules and procedures which can cause long delays. Cutting the expenditure of the government before it is hopelessly bureaucratic is a right direction. I feel disappointed with such a bureaucratic government Yeung Kin Pan
bureaus A government department or a subdivision of a department. Many of the bureaus officers and business community were disappointed with the proposal of Mr. Tung and believed that the blueprint did not go far enough, and could not help the homeowners in such an adversity. You should go to the testing bureaus to get back your score. Eva Hung
burgeon (verb) Growing fast, begin to grow rapidly. He advised Hong Kong garment manufacturers to further expand Mainland production beyond the Pearl River Delta Region in sites close to the burgeoning markets. The I.T. industry is one of the globally burgeoning industries. Francis Lam
burgeoning growing fast The burgeoning economy of the 1990s... The computer industry is no longer burgeoning, but has gone into decline. Lucy Tan
burgeoning Firm grow, develop The resources released will shifted to the burgeoning industry, which seems to benefit most in the issue. As Leonard K. Cheng believes that the introduction of competition will speed up the development of burgeoning industries, which require lots of workers. chloe shek
burgeoning beginning to grow rapidly He's building where people already live - the burgeoning wild Frontier Land of Shenzhen. China experienced a burgeoning economy despite global recession. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
burgeoning adj: to grow rapidly context: The Koreans are the pioneer in this burgeoning field. - Owing to a burgeoning population, the government has to make new plans to allocate welfare resources. anthony wong
burst (v) break open or break apart suddenly and violently Before he could come up with anything to follow the CyperPort project, the Internet bubble burst with accompanying job losses. We drove over some glass and one of our tyres burst. Rico Chan
bury to hide or cover over especially with earth Capital costs seen burying half of providers. They bury him alive. Polly Ng
business as usual (idiom) things that continue normally, despite difficulty and disturbances This is known as business-as-usual. It is business as usual for the pirated VCD market, despite the CED high-profile raids. Tam Ho Leung
bust break, smash Unlike previous recessions since the second world war, which were mostly demand-led, this one reflects a credit and investment bust that will take longer to work through the system. I dropped my camera on the pavement and bust it. Lam Man Chi
bust (v.) to damage something so badly that it can not be used I wrote for the Asian Wall Street Journal in February 1998: Don't bust Hong Kong's budget. Mr. Lee's new private car was busted in a car accident, making he felt extremely sad. Hui Hiu Yan Fiona
bust to break (something) This boom turned to bust in the Asian crisis and Hong Kong found itself carrying a relatively expensive currency because most other countries in the region were forced to devalue. Oh no! I!|ve bust his CD player. Tse Wun Man
Bust out of control As unemployment mounts we must raise unemployment insurance so as to help the more than 8 million Americans who have been stranded in this bust. My watch is bust. Chim Ting Fai Byron
bustle excited activity A month after the World Trade Center attacks, hundreds of people are still suffering, even as much of the city has resumed its regular bustle. She is always bustling about the house. Jackie Cheng
bustling lively, active, noisy. A Sunday Morning Post trip to the bustling Lowu Commercial City last week found shoppers snapping up goods at price 25% lower than in Hong Kong. West Wood is a bustling plaza. Sha Kwok He 200170643
bustling Busily active, often with much noise Shenzhen is a bustling city of 4 million just north of HK. Mong Kok is always bustling. Chan Man Han
Buttress support, strengthen For his part, Mr Bush also needs strong Sino-US relations, to buttress his challenges to international terrorism, a potential war with Iraq and the nuclear crisis in North Korea. You need more facts and evidences to buttress up your argument. Cherry Tam Hiu Yan
Buzz (noun) rumor despite the buzz about the future of Iraqi oil among oil firms. the buzz of the emperor is proved true Quon Fu Wah
buzzword a word or phrase, often sounding authoritative or technical, that is a vogue term in a particular profession, field of study, popular culture, etc. A new buzzword is Web collaboration, which means corporations doing business internally or with each other on the Internet-- for meetings, seminars, staff training, or marketing. In is a buzzword amoung the teens meaning that trendy and popular in last few years. Vincy Tam
bypass alternative passage China can deal with the rest of the world directly so as to bypass HK's heavy taxation system. We managed to bypass the shopping centre by taking side-streets. Man Angela Pui Kei
bypass Road by which traffic can go around a city, busy area etc. instead of through it It points to Hong Kong bring marginalized as investment bypasses China!|s traditional gateway. It will be faster if we use the bypass. Chan Man Hei
cabinet A committee of the heads of governmental departments FireKing cabinets are much heavier and bulkier than competitors' models. The president appoints his own cabinet organ. Cheung Ka Wai,Carrie (2001303021)
calamity a) a mishap; a disaster; large harm and damage b) !Barring a calamity, many economists minimize the odds of the repetition.! c) The earthquake caused the largest calamity in the history of China. Kathy Chan
calamity serious misfortune or disaster So economists and investors have been scouring history in the wake of last week's attacks, looking for lessons from previous calamities The earthquake was the worst calamity in the country's history Kwok Hon Ho
Calamity disaster Barring a calamity, many economists minimize the odds of a repetition. The earthquake was the worst calamity in the history of this city. Chim Ting Fai Byron
calibrate specialized Hong Kong Chinese tend to calibrate their trust for the government. The meter needs to be carefully calibrated before any measurements are made. Jessica Tse
Callous 1 a : being hardened and thickened b : having calluses 2 a : feeling no emotion b : feeling no sympathy for others (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !Rockman (1985) defined the function of oversight as: (a) check dishonesty and waste; (b) guard against harsh and callous administration; (c) evaluate implementation; (d) ensure administrative compliance with statutory intent.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.360) That callous shopkeeper forced the beggar to get out of his shop. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
Camouflage (v./n.) anything which is intended to hide something because, for example, it is unattractive or to hide something from being seen by others Some patients take steps to avoid being reminded of the defect by eliminating mirrors from their homes or camouflaging the defect The troops had camouflaged themselves so effectively that the enemy didn't notice them approaching. Tse Wing Yan, Cathy
campaign series of military operations with a particular aim ,usually in one area; series of planned The Business Roundtable and three other business-trade associations have already geared up a multimillion-dollar China's 15-year campaign to join the World trade Organization has ended . Yokie kong (2001711450)
candour the quality of being frank and honest in one's behaviour or speech. Yet many Hong Kong home-owners, suffering from negative equity and fearful of job losses, seem to crave a similar official candour. With refreshing candour, the officer admitted that she had lied in her previous confession. Dorothy Chan
cap restriction on something The report noted the cap on savings and current account interest-rate deposits was due to be scrapped in July, provided prevailing economic and financial conditions were favourable. The interest rate cap on saving accounts was removed on 1 July 2001 Kenneth fong (2001489851)
Cap To set an upper limit on something Despite cutting the number of civil servants from 198,000 to 180,000 over the last few years, and capping estimated expenditure for 2003-4 to $253.3 billion to try to balance the books by 2006-7, it already looks as if these measures fall far short of their target. I plan to cap my total expenditure to $2000 this month Yeung Kin Pan
capacity the amount that something can hold or contain; the amount that something can produce China has 87 color TV producers, whose total production capacity is 70 million sets a year. The fuel tank has a capacity of 12 gallons. Liu Yanju, Liana
capitalism economic system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the State Capitalism is one of the economic system adopted by many countries. Capitalism is a characteristic of USA. Chan Kit Chung
caprice (noun). unaccountable change of mind or conduct. The Caprice of the trading environment in the mainland has made the Hong Kong businessmen worrisome. The caprice of Mary makes her a strange person, leading to her loss of her boyfriend. Francis Lam
capture to get This provides a good chance for the smaller banks to capture new clients. We tried our best to capture the championship during competition. Kenneth Fong (2001489851)
caravan group of people travelling together In 1973, camping, caravan holidays and rented accommodation accounted for 27 percent of tourism spend. Mainland people often visit Hong Kong in caravans. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
Caravan travelers journeying together (as in a line) He smuggles some in !tanker caravans! through the Gulf. Look! A caravan is behind the sand hill! We are saved! Lau Cheuk Ki Steven
cartel A consortium of companies formed to limit competition A cosy cartel can quietly begin to raise charges. The cartel of these two companies has a great impact on the stock market. Kelly Wong 2001280281
Cartel business combination designed to limit competition Quite apart from its diminishing value as a military ally, Saudi Arabia has worked to maintain discipline in the OPEC oil-producers!| cartel, and to keep prices up, at around $25 a barrel, well above what many economists think would be their market level in the absence of OPEC. The Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce is a cartel to enhance co-operation and reduce competition. Lau Cheuk Ki Steven
Cartel A group of similar independent companies who join together to control prices and limit competition Indeed, the presence of 6,000 Allied troops in Saudi Arabia, the keeper of the oil production surplus and engine of the producers' cartel, has helped to temper prices - sending them as low as Dollars 8 a barrel of crude oil in 1990 - and boost the world economy. The seven stainless-steel producers are suspected of forming an illicit cartel to try to control prices. corey chan
carve to make or gain by long effort we will strengthen training in fashion design at our tertiary institutions and boost promotion overseas so that our local fashion industry can carve its own niche in the world market and set international trends. she has carved a career for herselfas a comic actress liz
cascade (v)Fall in like a large waterfall Arguments against such cuts focus on the SAR Government's salary revision procedures and processes, the impact on the economy, its cascading effect on the private sector. . The cascading fall of the IT stock market has put many people into financial predicament Vanessa WU
Cascade fall in or like a waterfall They cascade, unless they are applied as value-added tax, which is cumbersome to administer. Her hair cascades down her back. Ng Wai Wa
cascade (v) fall in or like a cascade The tax does not cascade into production or distribution costs. Her golden hair cascaded down her back. Ho yip chun ,Franco
cash crunch Shortage of cash Small operators are in cash crunch. Many families are in cash crunch and unable to pay all the bills. George Tsoi
casino (n.) public building or room for gambling and other amusements Property tycoon and casino mogul Stanley Ho Hung-sun, who is also chairman of the Real Estate Developers; Association, agreed that corporations that earned more should pay more. There are many casinos in Las Vagus. Raye Wu Wai Lam
cast throw Local punters seemed unsure in which direction to cast their lots with bad economic numbers The angler cast his line into the water Chan Ho Yin
Casuistry The use of clever arguments to trick people His casuistry had been honed to a razor’s edge. The solicitor’s casuistry has saved the scoundrel from going to prison. 2002303640
catalogue a list of names, places, goods etc, in a special order. APLAS is to establish a www site to publicise its activities and indicate the resources catalogues. Let's make a catalogue of our products. Tang Ning(2002999736)
catalyst a media or a person who create an opportunity for others. WTO accession would be the catalyst for increased flows of international trade and investment into China China as a catalyst will increase the growth of world economy in a positive way. Chu Wing Chun
catastrophe sudden great disaster or misfortune Insurers are expected to pay out at least US$20 billion to cover the damage by the terrorist attacks in the US, making it the most expensive catastrophe in history. The earthquake was a terrible catastrophe. Vilma Kwan
catastrophe a sudden great disaster While stocks often recover from catastrophes, the asked, What if there's a second wave (of terrorism)? The American stock market has been closed for 4 days after the catastrophe. Jackie Cheng
catastrophe A sudden great disaster or misfortune In the week since last Tuesday, catastrophes turned their industry into a flying bomb threat. The earthquake was a big catastrophe Sammy CH Li
catastrophe A great, often sudden calamity The WTO is a forum for its member states to negotiate trade relations and terms. The catastrophe was called the September Eleven Event. Choi Wing Yu Raey
catastrophic A great, often sudden calamity. The airline said it was facing a catastrophic downturn in trade. The catastrophic change of the members of board of director results in a decrease in company's stock price. Ken Yuen
catchment The collection of water. And extend the cargo catchment areas for Hong Kong!|s airport and ports. There are some catchment basins established in desert to provide fresh water for the people living there. Peter Poon
catchment A catching or collecting of water, especially rainwater; a structure, such as a basin or reservoir, used for collecting or draining water. Upon completion of six railways, population within rail catchment will be increased from about 50% to 65%, while employment catchment will increase from 65% to 70% The catchment basin of River is very extensive and large in Hong Kong Lai WAi Yin, Priscilla
cater To attend to the wants or needs of Businesses are more courteous towards these visitors, catering to their needs and offering quality services. Catering to the very demand of the clients is one of the most challenging aspects in modern business. Lawrence Kam
catering (noun) The industry to provide food for consumers. The worst sectors of unemployment are manufacturing, trading, catering, construction and retail industries. If you have enough money to start a business, it is not advisable for you to do catering. Fun
caution being careful to avoid danger or mistakes; prudence. This is why Alan Greenspan, the Fed's chairman, has advised caution on a fiscal stimulus. You should exercise extreme caution when driving in fog. Lam Man Chi
cautious careful Consumers grew more cautious in the second quarter as a wave of corporate accounting scandals. We should be more cautious crossing the road when we are talking on mobile phones. Lee Chung Yi Phoebe
Caveat A statement which limits a more general statement My second caveat is that no one can say for sure what these costs will be This film can be recommended with the one caveat that it is a little too long. corey chan
caveat a legal warning to a judicial officer to suspend a proceeding until the opposition has a hearing (none phrase) It works on the basis of caveat emptor or buyers beware. I will sigh the contract in short, but with certain caveats. Catherine Fan
cavern A big deep cave The Strategic Petroleum Reserve, created by Congress in the mid-1970s after the Arab oil embargo, currently holds 585 million barrels of crude oil in several underground salt caverns. Ancient people lived in caverns when they did not know how to build houses. Lois Sit
cease-fire signal to stop firing guns in war; temporary period of truce He said he suspected the industrial action could quietly diminish - without a formal ceasefire. Both sides are negotiating a ceasefire arguement. Sammy CH Li
ceiling A ceiling on something such as prices or wages is an official upper limit that has been put on it and that cannot be exceeded Lifting the income ceiling for applying for government housing loans. A price ceiling has been imposed on the petrol. Tommy
Ceiling (noun) the maximum limit the group is producing in excess of two million barrels per day over its production ceiling. the government imposes ceiling on the production of computers Quon Fu Wah
cement (n.) something that makes a relationship or agreement stronger and more long-lasting Our pursuit of efficiency has not only made us the best of breed : solidifying our position as the most profitable global cement company In the old days, television was the cement of society. wong ka man 2001240011
cemetery place where dead people are buried For many families of the World Trade Center victims, there is no cemetery to visit, no tidy grave on which to lay flowers, only a smoking pile of rubble in downtown Manhattan. Dead body will be buried in the cemetery. Leo Fan
Censure (v.) If you censure someone, you tell them that you strongly disapprove of them or of their actions. (Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, p. 220) ! People who do not conform to expectations are censured, rejected, even punished.! (The Welfare State, p. 17) The police was censured for employing excessive force to stop public meeting. Sit Yee Ling, Elaine 2002043795
centerpiece (n) core; decorative piece place in the center For example, the democratic government that succeeded the regime of General Pinochet seed human capital formation as the centerpiece of a strategy to spread the gains of market-based economic growth in Chile more evenly. The environmental crisis threatening us must be regarded as the centerpiece of our concern. Tracy Tse
Cerebral relating to thought or reasoning rather than to emotions The cerebral challenge of police work drives him crazy. The jury's judgement was all based upon cerebral evidence. Harly
cessation (n) stopping; ceasing Far from re The sudden outbreak of fire in his school resulted in cessation of examination last Friday. Tracy Tse
Cessation A ceasing or stopping; a pause Cessation of drug abuse appears to be linked to consequences of use. (The Social Psychology of Drug Abuse, p. 104) Tests are given without cessation, especially at the end of the semester. Candy Lau
Chagrin That which wears or gnaws the mind; vexation; annoyance Much to his chagrin, when he visited a bookstore to make his purchase he discovered that there were two appealing encyclopedias available. (Psychology: Themes and Variations, p. 329) The fact that he came last in the science competition was much to his chagrin. Candy Lau
chain A group of shops operated by the same firm Two supermarket chains launched price-cut campaigns for the elderly yesterday, slashing the cost of shopping bills under $200 by 10 per cent. A chain of hotels will be closed down next week due to financial problems. Yip Sau Wa
Chalk up Hong Kong chalked up a budget deficit of HK$56 billion between April to August, exceeding the government's full-year deficit target of HK$45.2 billion. To mark, draw, or write with chalk Manchester United has chalked up its fifth win in a row zil yau
Chamber (n.) administrative or legislative assembly The campaign, launched by Stephen Ip Shu-kwan, involves a voluntary agreement with 6 business chambers to create 20000 jobs. The chambers left th council.
chant Words shouted over and over to a regular beat (vb) As he delivered his speech, more than 100 protesters from grassroots groups chanted slogans and held banners demanding Mr Tung offer economic relief. During Christmans Eve, people always chant the carols in churches. Catherine Fan
chant (v) to sing to a chant Another group chanted: Life is hard for the poor. The crowd chanted slogans and waved banners. Rico Chan
Chaos Total disorder and confusion. Thousands of cross harbour commuters are expected to take advantage of free MTR rides this morning as the rail operator compensates travelers for last Thursday!|s chaos. The electricity failure in the hospital caused a chaos last Saturday. Peter Poon
Chaos Utter confusion; disorder The calls follow scenes of chaos, confusion and conflicting information at several recent sales. The new teacher is not preparing much before he comes, his teaching is chaos. Alfred
chaotic In a state of chaos With no one to keep order, the situation in the classroom was chaotic. The situation in the Middle East is chaotic. Ricka Man
charter The act of giving written authorization to some rights to people by the ruler. The company that chartered the vessel, Malaysia!|s state-owned oil company Petronas Nasional Bhd PETR.UL, did not suspect sabotage, the country!|s prime minister, Mahathir Mohamad, said. Our government chartered the right of allowing citizens to chew gums in public areas last week. Lois Sit
chauvinism a strong belief that your country is better and more important than all others The relentless patriotism and chauvinism of so much official propaganda is a vital component of the legitimacy of the ruling party The chauvinism of the Chinese people is increasing. Ricky Biala
cheeky Being not respectful But the cuts drew criticism from one concern group which branded the scheme 'cheeky' and said the cost of groceries generally was too high. He is isolated in school because of his cheeky manner. Yip Sau Wa
Cherish To love, protect and care for Most of the al-Qaeda terrorists came from there, most of the al-Qaeda money came from there, the ideology inspiring al-Qaeda, Wahhabism, comes from and is cherished there. Although my mother cherishes me, she allows me my independence. corey chan
Cherish protect or tend (somebody or something) lovingly Hong Kong!|s fiscal framework in general and the taxation system in particular have been cherished as simple, transparent!K..that business and households know in advance their tax commitments. He cherishes the memory of being a schoolboy Ng Wai Wa
chokes off To become blocked up or obstructed Some economists predict that in the short run, because of a surge of imports and increased competition, inefficient domestic enterprises will be forced to reform or shut down, which may lead to higher unemployment rates. As soon as the Hong Kong Stock Market just recovered from the Asian Economic Crisis, the crash of the financial center in the US as well as in the world chokes off the Stock Market in the world. Raey Choi
chuckle (v.) laugh quietly or to oneself He chuckled and muttered, I should have known. He chuckled as he read the newspaper. Tung Ka Ki
chugging move with a dull short repeated sound To keep the economy chugging along The taxi chugged with difficulty up the winding road. Lam Wing Yuen Judy
chum a friend The five men have got chummier these past weeks. They had conspired to isolate the hotheads and slowpokes in both parties and move legislation for the war on terrorism with what for Washington was record speed. I met my old school chum on my fight to the US, and we chewed the fat for hours. Vincy Tam
churn out To produce repeatedly and in large amounts The creative and design industry has been churning out some of the most innovative products in the world. He churns out newspaper articles every 2 days in the week. Oriana Fu
Circumscribe restrict something by limitations The US has no intention of using the war against terrorism to circumscribe or contain China. Most of the people in developing countries have lives circumscribed by poverty. Cherry Tam Hiu Yan
circumvent (verb) find a way of avoiding or overcoming a problem. To some extent the operational difficulties have been circumvented by arrangements with local provincial authorities. Some people circumvent their problem by commit suicide. Emily Mok
circumvent verb: to find a way of avoiding something context: Several alternatives have been proposed to circumvent this potential polarization of society. - At this point in time, we should cooperate and circumvent this problem that both of us is facing. anthony wong
civic (adj.) - Meaning: of a city or its citizens - Example: Those civic terrorists came from India. gap
claimants a party that makes a claim Elderly claimants could in future be allowed to receive CSSA while resident in China. All of the claimants are workers in tertiary production. Peter Lok
clamber (v.) climb, especially with difficulty or effort, using the hands and feet At this moment the boat bumped gently into the harbor wall. Hagrid folded up his newspaper, and they clambered up the stone steps onto the street. The children clambered over the rocks. Tung Ka Ki
Clamorous (adjective) loudmouthed Wouldn't the posited US control result in the lowering of oil prices to satisfy the clamorous American public? war can satisfy clamorous militants Quon Fu Wah
clamour long for, demand Airlines around the world have been clamouring for government support The public are clamouring for a change of government Marian Lam
Clamour (n.) (v.) a noisy shouting; a loud continuous noise; insistent public expression (as of support or protect) The comments brought a clamour from developers for fast government action. Many people clamour against the government’s attempt to pass legislation concerning Basic Law Article 23. Wong Kwai Man
clamour loud and persistent outcry from many people The comments brought a clamour for fast government action to landlords. The government should not ignore the clamour of the crowd. Tommy
clamour same as clamor, insistent public expression The comments brought a clamour from developers for fast government action. The propose of the legislation of Law No.23 brings a clamour. Leung Ka Yan Stephanie
clarify To become or make sth clearer or easier to understand I hope that what I say will clarify the situation. Sorry, I don!|t understand. Could you clarify it? Ricka Man
clause component of (complex) sentence, with its own subject and predicate, especially one doing the work of a noun, adjective or adverb The AOA now says the document includes a clause allowing renegotiation at the end of the second year. There are many clauses in this document, and one of them stated clearly that every shareholder should bear the responsibility of sharing the loss equally. Kenneth Kwong (2001751266)
claw back (of the government ) recover, esp. by taxation While it is true that the government!|s revenue flows peak in the final months of any fiscal year, the present economic climate suggested that it will not be able to claw back enough to meet the forecast. The government should try it best to claw back enough to meet the huge expenditure. Chan Man Hei
clench press closely together Tong Chee Wah stresses H.K. strengthens with clenched fist. When childern use escalator, they should be accompanied by adults and clench the handrail. Leung Mei Fun
clientele a clientele is all the customers of a business when they are considered as a group The bank's clientele includes some of the richest people in the city This database contains all personal information of our clinetele. GoGo
clinging To hold fast or adhere to something The industry is clinging to in hope The gamblers always clinging to in luck. Ken Yuen
clone cause something to grow exactly the same Manufacturers in the Mainland can clone the products that is designed in Hong Kong easily. Mary produces a clone of her artpiece by duplicating it as the original work. Man Angela Pui Kei
closet (of information) given in confidence or in secret They ought to be more worried about beating closet index managers. The government also keeps its policy in the closet before its announcement. Kelly Wong 2001280281
closet small room; cupboard Most importantly, many of Mr. Jiang's peers have skeletons in their closet-they are either tainted by corruption, or members of their families are connected with shady business deals. I have been cleaning the closet all morning but it still looks dirty. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
Closure an act of closing : the condition of being closed Their action has already forced the closure of ExxonMobil's 100,000 b/d Slagen refinery and Borealis' 110,000- 120,000mt/yr polypropylene plant in Ronningen. The closure of the supermarket brings a lot of inconvenience to my family. Penny
closure (n) closing or being closed Prime Minister could cost many more layoffs, plant closures and cutbacks. The threat of closure affected the worker's morale. Ho yip chun , Franco
clue something which helps to solve a problem At times, Hong Kong seems a bit clueless about its identity and its future. The clue to cope with the problem is confidence. Steven Cheng (2001251175)
Clunky lacking grace in movement or posture It unveiled an expensive new marketing campaign with a clunky slogan. The party was clunky and ended in a dissatisfactory environment. chuk kai yiu
cluster a place to get somebody together A summary was provide of how the cluster groups were taking their work programme forward. Cyberport can cluster round the professions in the information technology sectors from the world. Hui Ka Kit
cluster Gather or grow in one or more clusters This jump, of course, reflects the clustering of workers whose wages were at or near the minimum wage. Skyscrapers cluster in Central. David Chan
cluster A number of things, such as fruits, of the same kind growing or collected together; a bunch. Its promotion of Hong Kong's service exports is structured thematically around clusters of related service industries. We all clustered around the campfire and sang songs. Cheung Ka Wai,Carrie (2001303021)
cluster a place to get somebody together A summary was provide of how the cluster groups were taking their work programme forward. Cyberport can cluster round the professions in the information technology sectors from the world. hui ka kit
clustering surrounding sth closely; concentration Clustering of tourist attractions and activities is an important planning principle. Clustering of similar kinds of shops may not necessarily be detrimental to their businesses, since consumers are given more choices. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
coalesce to unite into a whole On that occasion I identified six factors at work concerning deflation. Some are exogenous to Hong Kong and some are Hong Kong-specific, but they all coalesce to produce the grey clouds currently looming over Hong Kong. The small firms decided to coalesce to fight with the large enterprises in the price war. Choi Lai Yan
coalition (n.) A government consists of people from 2 or more political parties The conservative Liberal-National coalition, led by John Howard, had run out of reformist zeal, was trailing in the polls and had managed to alienate many of its supporters. It took five months for the coalition to agree on and publish a medium-term economic program. wong ka man 2001240011
Coalition The act of uniting And damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. The two societies form a coalition to hold that function. Karen Wong Ka Yan
cockpit the cabin where the crew stay when the pilot is driving a fund will be established to finance aircraft modifications to delay or deny access to the cockpit The security is insufficient when the terrorists could easily access to the cockpit Marian Lam
Codify (v)Frame into code They!|re actually codified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The headmaster codified the school rules. Lee Tsan Ki
Coercion restraint It smacks of coercion, inequality, occasionally of brutality. (Michael G. Roskin, Political Science: An Introduction, p. 5 ) He was, at first, reluctant to disclose the secret information, but eventually done so under coercion. Candy Lau
cognitive of, about, or needing action of knowing, including consciousness As Yale's Robert. Sternberg, an influential cognitive psychologist, warns, 'if we are to seek genuine understanding of the relationship between natural intelligence and measured intelligence. The psychology students ard studying children's cognitive development. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
coherent connected logically or consistent, easy to understand What the markets want is a strong leadership and coherent economic policy. His speech was coherent and was appreciated by all the audience. Henry Pang
coherent Marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts: a coherent essay. Our view is unless there is something coherent pulled together (by the new ministerial line-up) in that time period, then certainly the rating will come under substantial pressure Coherent The government lacks of coherent economic policy zil yau
cohesion the act or state of sticking together tightly In the past, OPEC's greatest problem has been keeping internal cohesion. What can provide cohesion in these diverse groups of people? Lai Man Kit, Charles (2001473412)
Cohesion Tendency to stick together; unity Lacking political legitimacy and the ability to forge social cohesion, it is unrealistic to expect the Tung administration to easily impress major stakeholders of the merits of swallowing a bitter pill Cohesion can create great power Tsang Man Tai
Cohesiveness (n.) tendency to remain united The first treatment session began with introductions structured to build group cohesiveness Group members are closely linked together and with good interactions if there is good cohesiveness in the group. Tse Wing Yan, Cathy
cold shoulder to treat coldly, or to neglect. Taipei's powerlessness and Beijing's cold shoulder mean that businesspeople are on their own, like orphans. After receiving a cold shoulder from his tutor for helping him, Frank now has even less motivation in improving his studies. Francis Lam
collaborate work with others The Indonesian and Australian police are collaborating in the investigation of the bombing. John and Mary are collaborating in cooking the dinner. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
collaboration to work with someone else for a special purpose Jupiter Media Metrix Inc. projected that enterprise spending on streaming media would be driven largely by applications for internal communications and external collaboration with clients. The new airport is a collaboration between two of the best architects in the country. Vincy Tam
collaboration The activity of working together with others in producing something. This development possibly points the way to deepening collaboration across the board. The government in Hong Kong works in collaboration with China in promoting tourism industry. Maggie
collapse break into pieces and fall down or in suddenly The World Trade Centre towers most likely collapsed from the intense fire fed by thousands of litres of jet fuel on board the two aircraft that crashed into the buildings. It is because the terror attacks are caused by commercial planes collide with World Trade Centre, causing it to collapse. Vilma Kwan
collapse fall down or break down !I think the stock market is stuck in a depressed range here for a while!, he said. !I don!|t see any collapse or recovery.! A building collapsed immediately due to the severe earthquake. Many people were killed as they were not able to escape from the building. Lee Chung Yi Phoebe
collateral To guarantee by some property What should be the collateral for the loan using for insurance compensation? There is no valid collateral for a loan Jessie Lui
collateral (noun) Money or property which is used as a guarantee that someone will repay a loan. Commercial banks should look beyond the traditional way of making loan decisions based on property collateral. They have nothing to offer as collateral. Tony Chung
collide come together violently; be opposed Falling down, getting up again, flying, colliding in and out of sync, the children learn not to stray too far from the middle of the elastic canvas. Two cars were collided, luckily, no one was hurt. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
colliery A coal mine and the buildings and machinery connected with it. Aberfan, like many other settlements in the South Wales valleys, grew up around its colliery. As mining in the area has ended, the colliery is now deserted. lee yik wing
colloquial of ordinary, informal or familiar conversation; not formal or special to literature In colloquial English, a chicken is a weak and timid person. We must avoid colloquial expressions in formal writings. Manuel Ng Man Chun
Collude (With SB.) plot or conspire to deceive or cheat others. !It is easily and perhaps even !natural! to collude with patients by focusing on the superficial, the clever and expedient.! He was caught by the ICAC because he colluded with his boss in doing some illegal business. Ng Yik Yu Gloria
colluding plot or conspire to deceive or cheat others Mr Yam said there did not appear to be any indication that banks were colluding with each other, given the differences in savings rates, the structure of the rate schedules used and the variety of new products. Many people afraid that banks will collude with each other after the deregulation of the interest rate. Kenneth Fong (2001489851)
colonialism the principles or practices of having or keeping colonies The Ibo, too, freely revised any customary procedures in order to pursue trade--a flexibility that served them well in the new capitalist economy introduced by colonialism. Shis against colonialism as she believed countries should be independent. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
colony a place ruled or represented by another political entity Having been the colony of the Great Britain over a hundred years, both Western and Chinese culture are strong among the society. Philippines has once been the colony of the great Britain so many people there are now using English as an communication device. Andrew K.M. Li
colossal gigantic, huge For another (thing) , officials say they cannot justify subjecting the Treasury to the colossal financial risks involved in helping those suffering due to normal market activities. There are lots of colossal buildings in Central. Tam Ho Leung
combat try to reduce, weaken or destroy sth Mr Wong's comments followed calls by business groups for civil service pay cuts to combat the growing deficit, which reached a record HK$70.8 billion for the first half of this financial year. After the boom of World Trade Centre on September 11 in USA, combating terrorism is a current issue in the world. Raye Wu Wai Lam
combat if someone combats something, he try to stop it happening Financial Secretary Antony Leung had given the green light for the proposal to turn abandoned factories into commercial buildings, in an attempt to combat the surging unemployment, the sources said He opposes to use those government interventions to combat crime Janice Hui
combat struggle for At a conference in Estonia, Mr Latter said many factors had led to deflation and rejected critics who argued the dollar peg had prevented the SAR from using interest rates to combat the problem. The soldiers will combat the enemy until they get the final victory. Ho Ka Ming
combat a fight or contest between individuals or groups the government thinks that it is the most effective way of combating illegal soccer betting. The soldier knows that the only way he could win is to combat not to defeat. Wong chun yin Benjamin
Combat To oppose in battle; fight against. Due to budget constraints, Leung admitted the government was reviewing its undertaking in February to invest more than HK$600 billion over the next 15 years on more than 1,600 projects to combat unemployment. Custom Department promised that it will try its best to combat pirated CD zil yau
combat To fight, to tackle 15000 jobs are announced to combat unemployment. A new medicine is introduced to combat malaria. keith yuk
Combat (verb) (with/ against) fight; struggle. Government's tightening measures to combat illegal employment. Sigh! I am combating with the loads of homework now! Tang, Vivian Lok Sze (2002 608349)
Combatant Person who is involved in fighting in a war. Most observers agree that, of the 21 combatants, only a handful will be alive, independent and in the game in a few years time. My grandfather was a combatant during the World War II. Jessica
come under fire being criticize The offer came from Joerg Haider, the rightist governor of Carinthia province, who has come under fire at home and abroad for opposing foreign migration to Austria, particularly from southern and Eastern Europe. The Airport Authority came under fire when the operation of the new airport proved to be a mess. Leo Fan
commence begin, start Image-building of the destination can be commenced before many facilities are available. Problems were discovered only after the policies were commenced. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
commensurate corresponding in size, extent, amount, or degree The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall follow the principle of keeping the expenditure within the limits of revenues in drawing up its budget, and strive to achieve a fiscal balance I strive for recognition as an economist Henry Mak
commensurate fitting and suitable It will contain concessions by China commensurate with its admission to the world trade body. Her job is commensurate with her abilities. Winnie Chan
commensurate Equal; adequate; corresponding in amount. In broad-brush terms, Hong Kong is a service economy and yet the amount of resources devote3d to services statistics is not commensurate with the place of the service sector in the economy. Our fortunes are often not commensurate with our desires. Cheung Ka Wai,Carrie (2001303021)
commensurate conform with Her low salary is not commensurate with her abilities Steven Kong
Commensurate (adj.) in the right proportion ( to something); appropriate  !K., and strive to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its gross domestic product.  His leg is not commensurate with ordinary people. Kyle Tang
Commensurate (v.) matching something in size, importance, quality, etc At the same time, the Government recognizes the need to promote good employer-employee relations, enhance the rights and benefits of employees in a way that is commensurate with Hong Kong!|s socio-economic development, and protect the safety and health of employees at work. Salary will be commensurate with experience. Wong Man Chun
Commentary A series of explanations or interpretations. ( used as sub-headings in the article) The commentary made by Ms. Anson Chan upon the issue generates many controversies among the society. Yip Ka Man
commentators (n) eyewitness who gives a broadcast on an event, eg a horse-race or football match The majority view amongst competent scientific commentators is... The commentators are not always objective. Be critical about their ideas. Tracy Tse
commentators person who comments Some commentators consider it has reached saturation point. Many commentators argue that the Chief Excecutive has been incompetent in reviving Hong Kong's competitiveness. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
commerce (n.) trade (esp between countries) the Commerce Department's Tuesday revision of gross domestic product, have generally indicated a modest but solid recovery.. We can promote commerce with countries in Europe. Dominic Yik
commission payment to somebody for selling goods which increases with the quantity of goods sold Mr Tam argued that if the removal of the minimum commission led to the collapse of many brokerages and huge job losses, it would hurt the stability of society and not help enhance Hong Kong's position as an international financial centre. The man promoting the sales of goods gets a 5% commission on everything he sells. Josephine Chan
commissioned holding rank by A survey commissioned by the Hong Kong Investment Fund, found that most MPF contributors are first time investors. John is commissioned to help the headmaster. Tam Yuen Lam
commitment a strong believe in an idea or system. Mr Tung was keen to reaffirm his commitment to education and care for the poor and elderly. I have a strong sense of commitment towards this company. Eva Hung
commitment Promise Also, this reduction will subject to a firm commitment from non-OPEC oil producers Russia doesn't have any commitment with the OPEC. Ngai Hau Yung
commitment things one has promised to do Mr. Greenspan warned that the shock of September 11 by markedly raising the degree of uncertainty about the future, has the potential to result in a pronounced disengagement from future commitments. We are looking for someone with a real sense of commitment to the job. Hermi Chan
Commitment a pledge to do Mr Bush could reciprocate by returning to the commitment of the 1982 Shanghai Communiqum in arms sales to Taiwan. All parents try their best to have profound commitments to their families without hesitation. Cherry Tam Hiu Yan
commodity a thing of use or advantage, especially something sold for profit The commodities analyzed for impacts on China's agriculture trade were corn, wheat, rice, cotton, and soybeans and their products. Wine is one of the many commodities that France sells abroad. ZANG YU
commodity thing bought in a shop and put to use How much of each commodity should the consumer buy if his or her money income is only 4 dollars? Trading in commodities was brisk. Chan Kit Chung
commodity A product that can be sold to make a profit. At regular intervals, a firm orders a quantity x of a commodity which is placed in stock. This magazine focuses trends in the commodities market such as power and energy, precious metals, etc. lee yik wing
communism a political system in which resources allocated is directed by the central government Communism is still running by the PRC. Communism may not be a good one from the eye of the US so she always criticize that China is doing. Andrew K.M. Li
commute Exchange; Travel constantly by car between one's place of living and place of work It was not a good time to allow people to commute round-the-clock across the border The commute flow make the traffic congestion problem become more serious. Rolen
comparable (adj) that can be compared The trend of economic growth in Hong Kong is in line with that of our comparable neighbours. His achievements are comparable with the best. Leung Hoi Wah Janette (2001244316)
Compassionate Feeling promoting one to give help The community is compassionate towards the vulnerable; when the economy is good and public finances permit, the public welcomes the raising of the recipients' standards of living. The compassionate judge gave the young offender a light sentence. Wu Hoi Kit
compel make somebody to do something Firms are compelled to change their outputs in order to deal with these changes. He was compelled by illness to give up his studies. Josephine Chan
compel to force, drive, or constrain There is the need to compel people to provide for old age and other contingencies. We should compel students not to sleep in the class. Peter Lok
competent (adj) of person having ability, power, authority, skill, knowledge, knowledge, etc (to do what is needed. The majority view amongst competent scientific commentators is... The famous painting, !Star Starry Night?is the work of Van Gough, a competent artist in the Netherlands. Tracy Tse
competitiveness an aggressive willingness to compete It will enhance the competitiveness of Hong Kong's export goods in the world market. The competitiveness of Hong Kong will certainly decrease due to the entrance of China to the WTO. Lawrence Kam
Complacency derog a feeling of satisfaction with oneself or with a situation, esp. without a good reason There is no room for complacency. The economy condition of Hong Kong is poor, the government officials are no room for complacency. Polly Tsui Hoi Yan
complacency a feeling of calm satisfaction with your own abilities or situation that prevents you from trying harder There is no room for complacency. Complacency is an obstacle to success. Oriana Fu
complacent pleased with what you have achieved so that you stop trying to improve or change things Despite a cautious yet practical economic approach, it is no time for the government to become complacent. If Mary win a few competitions, she may be complacent and look down on others. Chaing Kit Yi
Complacent Contented to a fault; self-satisfied and unconcerned Not that we can afford to be complacent. The footballer gave a complacent smile after he scored a goal. Junie, Chu Ching Man
complement Make complementary to With the introduction of MPF, complemented by personal savings and CSSA, Hong Kong will have in place all the three pillars for old age protection. No Hong Kong and Shenzhen should complement each other and we should try to improve cross border traffic. Kelly Wong 2001280281
complementary things that help, co-operate and smoothen each other The writer believes that the two cities are actually of a complementary relationship Film and camera are complementary goods. They cannot be seperated. Andrew K.M. Li
complementary Forming a complete and balanced whole. The measures were being considered on the basis of mutual benefit and being complementary to each other. These two medicines are regarded as complementary to cure cancer. keith yuk
compliance obedience to a rule it will ensure strict compliance with the laws and regulations on importation of labour and foreign domestic helpers Compliance with the law is expected of all citizens liz lam
Compliance Action in obedience to another’s wish, request, etc. The more motivated or functional the treatment population is, the more the population views itself as an active consumer, the greater the belief is in potential change, the greater the social support received is for change, and the simpler the treatment regimen is, the greater is the compliance with treatment. (The Social Psychology of Drug Abuse, p. 104) All members of the federation are expected to act in compliance with the regulations and constitution. Candy Lau
compliance a) promise, obedience to a command b) !Data shows that this target was exceeded by about almost 50000 bbl/d in the first quarter of 2002, giving Mexico a significantly better compliance track record than OPEC countries.! c) Compliance with the law is expected in society. Kathy Chan
Compliant Ready or disposed to comply : SUBMISSIVE (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !When the legislature is very compliant, bills are passed and passed very easily, with little time spent on debates or deliberation.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.357) All the members in the Parliament are compliant with the legislation that the Education Minister initiates. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
comply to behave in accordance with a request or an order Enterprises that comply with the foregoing conditions may pay enterprise income tax at a reduced rate of 10 percent. The investor complied with the government!|s order and then made a profit. Selina Yu
comply to act according to rules When the legislature is very compliant, bills are passed and passed very easily. It is difficult for the government to rule if the citizens do not comply. Jessica Tse
comply with submit, consent, obey Airlines are not complying with government orders issued after last month's terrorist hijackings to scan checked baggage for bombs, the Transportation Department's inspector general says. The workers are not complying with the company in the matter of the workers' salary. Leo Fan
composite (n.,adj.) sth made up of different parts or materials The composite consumer price index (CPI) was expected to fall 1.5 per cent in 2003 followed by a rise of 0.5 per cent in 2004.. The contract is a composite of success and future vision. Dominic Yik
composure self-control We maintain our composure, walk the extra mile, strive for excellence, determination and adaptability, we can overcome all difficulties as we forge ahead towards a bright future. We must equip and composure ourselves, and fulfill our responsibility to help the recovery of the economy. vivien
composure Calmness; a steadily unworried manner or state of mind We maintain our composure, walk the extra mile, strive for excellence, better ourselves and break new ground Some of the Hong Kong citizen have xomposure towards the economy of Hong Knog Lai Wai Yin, Priscilla
compounded to make something worse or bigger However, it's problem last month compounded by the worst typhoon... My favourite type of interest is getting compounded interest as I get more money then. Mamta Goel
comprise (v) have as parts or members In the basket selected for the Council's price surveys at these supermarket chains were 84 common grocery items comprising 11 categories. This is a famous school comprising students from different countries. Kwok Ying Mei
comprise consist of NFO deputy managing director Chris Farquhar said focus groups comprising employers and local and expatriate teachers had been quizzed on the quality of job seekers and asked to suggest ways to raise their standard. The United Kingdom comprises England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Lam Hon Wai, Kelvin
Comprise Have as parts or members be made up of Hong Kong companies would comprise half of the exhibitors, with the remainder coming from the mainland, Macau and Taiwan. This committee comprising people of widely differing views. Cheung Lo
compromise to settle an argument or differences of opinion by taking a middle course acceptable to all sides But we will not compromise on the repayment capability of customers, he warned We could not agree whether to go to movies or supermarket, so we compromised and went to the bar. Lee Man Fung, Richard
compromise a concession to something derogatory or prejudicial In order to compromise with the need of homeowners, the Government should provide the ultra-low loans to reduce the pressure that the negative assets owners faced. The industrial strikes were finally settled by compromise between the concerned parties. Eva Hung
compromise settlement of a disagreement by which each side gives up sth. it has asked for and neither side gets all it has asked for; settle a disagreement, quarrel, etc. Secondly there are various institutional hurdles to resist changes for domestic banks if these were to happen too rapidly and stability is compromised. You should not compromise so easily. Hau Hoi Wan
compromise verb: weaken context: piracy compromises creativity - Peter refuses to compromise his principles as he feels that he is not in the wrong. anthony wong
compulsive having power to compel of, relating to, caused by, or suggestive of psychological compulsion or obsession If the legalization of soccer betting is enforced, it will give nations a negative message but to increase compulsive gambling to boost it coffers. he have a compulsive to cry after he read the novel. Wong chun yin Benjamin
Compulsive Coercive; with power to compel Such data can assist in understanding people’s level of addiction (where individuals fall on the drug abuse continuum), occurrence of other compulsive behaviours and psychiatric difficulties, and motivation to stop using. (The Social Psychology of Drug Abuse, p. 43) She is engaged in compulsive eating which makes it a burden to her family in controlling her diet. Candy Lau
concede (v) admit; grant; allow. They concede that this departure form past economic policy is needed to stimulate development. We cannot concede our emery to step on our territory as it is our duty to protect our country. Tracy Tse
concede verb 1. admit that sth is true, valid, proper, etc 2. give sth away; allow(sb else)to have sth He concedes that his hours haven't been very good for family values. I was forced to concede that her answer is right. Ng Quan Lun Alan
concede To admit something is true He conceded any subsidy for the elderly was welcome but said it needed to be permanent if it was to make a serious difference. He openly concedes that he has lost in the competition in the press conference. Yip Sau Wa
concede (v) admit unwillingly that something is true or correct It concedes that growth has been less volatile in [France and Germany] than in the UK. The teacher finally conceded that the argument made by the student was right. Terri Cheung Pui Yi (2002376398)
concede verb: admit that something is true context: many critics concede that robots may one day successfully simulate thinking. - My opponent is just too strong for me, I concede defeat. anthony wong
Concede To admit This is the first time a senior government official has conceded that falling property prices are hurting the economy. The candidate for mayor would not concede that he had lost the election until all the votes were counted. Constance
Conceded ( admit; grant; allow Mr. Leung said the economy was gradually improving, with the second quarter turning into positive growth, but conceded the growth in the export of goods and services had slowed down recently. My parents did not blame me for not getting high grades as they conceded that I had tried my best. Wong Kwai Man
conceivable believable The only conceivable way of increasing average living standards is to attempt to limit the amount of externalities. People traveling out of space are conceivable. Leung Sze Mei, Jasmie
concession (n.)making concession to someone refers to let someone do or have something, especially in order to end an argument Although poor countries did not get the immediate concessions on textiles that they had been demanding, the Doha round offers the prospect of big long-term gains. It appears that Britain has made sweeping concessions to China in order to reach a settlement. wong ka man 2001240011
concession The act of conceding. Something, such as a point previously claimed in argument, that is later conceded The concession will cost about $5 billion in lost revenue people can pay at a concession rate if they register as member of the fitness club Lai Wai Yin, Priscilla
concession thing granted or yielded, especially after discussion, an argument United Airline is considering seeking concessions from its powerful unions Employees made concessions to the workers in negotiations Sammy CH Li
concession The act of conceding; something granted by a government to be used for a specific purpose. She was confident public transport companies would provide more fare concessions for passengers. Elderly people are now receiving fare concessions when traveling with CityBus. Peter Poon
concession The act of conceding. Pro-democracy legislators pressed for a fair competition policy to protect small businesses, while the pro-business camp wanted more tax concessions. During the time of deflation, interests are high and businesses are hard to survive. Many of them want interest concessions. Lee Ching Frederick
concession the admitting of a point claimed in argument Yet no one will argue that these concessions have worsened the deflation problem. The firm is willing is raise the wages of its employees as a concession to its employees' demands. Choi Lai Yan
concession the act of conceding Limiting the supply of land and subsidized flats was a more effective way to prop up the property market than reducing stamp duty and boosting tax concessions. As a concession to the public outcry, the government reduce the tax on petrol. Tommy
Concession thing granted or yielded, esp after discussion, an argument National Bank economist Kevin Lai said rate concession granted by the government earlier this year had also lowered. The government should give the unemployed a concession Lee hoi Tung
concession The act of yielding or admitting as true The Housing Authority announced it was waiving housing rent for one month, and there were other rent concessions for shop tenants Employers made concessions to the workers in negotiations. Catherine Fan
Concession conceding; that which is conceded, especially after discussion; a difference of opinion; an argument When favoured industries are given special concessions as they are now with the innovation and technology and the logistics or the small and medium enterprise campaigns and the definitions of what is all rather arbitrary, people tend to be a little cautious about investing their capital in fear that competitors may be given a pricing edge. As a concession to the employees’ outcry, management agrees not to cut salary for the coming 6 months Wong Kwai Man
concessions the act of yielding China made several concessions to the United States in the negotiation. The firm's promise to increase our pay was a concession to union demands. ZANG YU 2001999959
concessions a reduction in the price of tickets, fares etc for certain groups of people Coupled with the effect of 1998-99 Budget concessions, there was a decrease in collections of $8.8 billion in Earnings and Profits Tax Sales revenue has not been increased though there are concessions for students. Chiang Kit Yi Wallis
concessions rights given or sold to somebody by the owners Never deal with one government when you can deal with two, so you can play them off one against the other to secure favourable concessions. Chan!|s Company is given a concession to drill the oil underground. Tsui See Mei Michelle
concierge a caretaker; person (usually a woman) who looks after the entrance to a block of flats US diplomats said everyone was in the bar or shopping, and a concierge at their hotel said they had arranged to take a 10am plane the next morning The concierge told me that Michael was looking for me this afternoon. Ricky Biala
Conciliatory Friendly, agreeable The US's apparently more conciliatory tone hastened that trend. Our competitor, ABC company, made a conciliatory speech in its AGM. Oscar Chow
concomitant accompanying; attendant The growth of industry depends, however, on concomitant development in agriculture. War with all its concomitant sufferings impact people a lot. Ma Xumin,Joyce
concomitantly in the manner of existing or happening together with something else Turkey and Poland have concomitantly become popular investment destinations. Wars always break out concomitantly with starvations. Winnie Chan
condemn To express very strong disapproval of (someone or something) But the general feeling given by our officials is that if you don't keep learning all the time, you are lazy and you deserve to be condemned to poverty. Most of political leaders in the world have condemned the terrorist attack in New York. David Chan
condemn (v.) say one disapproves of sb/sth. Proposal to trim top officials salaries condemned as a back-door attempt to further lower civil service wages. We all condemn sexual abuse to children. Raye Wu Wai Lam
condemned say that something is or has done wrong; faulty or unfit. Tung Chee-hwa has condemned the possibility of industrial action by Cathay Pacific pilots, describing them as among the best-paid in the world People strongly condemned the terrorism, which attacked the world trade center in 11/9/2001. Kenneth Kwong (2001751266)
condensation causing something to become more concentrated; using a few words to summarize long contents China Construction Bank, contribute modern lives is the condensation of thoughts and the pursuit of the Bank. This report is a condensation of the annual financial statements offered by the bank. Selina Yu
condolence (noun). an expression of sympathy. Ambassador Li told her he had been busy receiving condolences from all over the world. The whole population offered their condolences to the widow of the martyr. Francis Lam
conducive likely to produce Interest rates then rise, creating the monetary conditions conducive to capital inflows so as to maintain exchange rate stability. Plenty of exercise is conducive to good health. Leung Sze Mei, Jasmie
conducive likely to produce; helping industries like clothing can operate in an environment that is conducive to their further development. the atmosphere in the conference room was hardly conducive to frank and friendly discussion liz lam
Conducive Beneficial, helping, contributive The main objective of the fund is to support projects conducive to the healthy and long term development of the film industry in Hong Kong. Praise is conducive to the buildup of children!|s confidence. Chan Ka Yan, Karen
conducive providing the right conditions for something good to happen or exist The sooner pertinent feasibility studies begin, the more conducive they will be to Hong Kong-Guangdong economic integration. Libraries are more conducive environments for revisions than homes. Oriana Fu
conducive if a situation is conducive to something such as work, rest etc, it provides conditions that make it easy for you to work etc Well, first of all, to me it is very conducive for external factors with a very stable US market, a recovering Japanese economy and a powerfully growing Mainland of China, which is our main market. A good teaching environment is conducive to stimulating interest in learning. Chiang Kit Yi
conducive (adj.) - Meaning: likely to produce A monopoly airline, monopoly communications or energy providers and a narrow group of well-vetted suppliers are much more conducive to security that letting any bright spark have access to the system - Example: The food is conducive to health. gap
conduit 1. pipe which gas ,electricity, water can pass through 2.a country, organization or person which pass is used to pass information to other people or places. Hong Kong has become a major conduit for overseas investments into the Mainland. Hong Kong is a major conduit for manufacturing goods produced in Mainland into overseas market. Maggie
Confectioners Manufacturer European traders in cocoa beans said there had been some industry buying for the past week as confectioners took advantage of unexpected price falls. The confectioners always take the advantage of bulk purchase of materials. Oscar Chow
confer to take together The HKSAR Government should confer with the Guangdong Provincial Government to push full speed ahead for the expeditious integration of the two regions to secure a mutual sure-win situation. the minister is still conferring with his advisers liz lam
confer (v) have discussions This consumer preference has conferred a degree of market power on supermarkets in the choice and pricing of their products. She withdrew to confer with her advisers before announcing a decision. Kwok Ying Mei
confess say or admit, often formally He finally confessed that he had committed the crime. Mary refused to confess publicly Chan Kit Chung
confident sure, not skeptical Mr. Tung was confident about regional prospect in the medium and long term I feel confident about the future of British music Mak Ling Kai
confiscate officially take out something from a body as a punishment. For ,instance, the emergence of the Eurodollar market in the 1950s was the response to the reluctance of ex-Socialist countries to place their US dollars back into the United States for fear that their assets would be confiscated by the US government. Primary school teachers like to confiscate student's toys when they play in the classroom. Maggie
Confiscated to seize by or as if by authority In 1961 the new nationalist dictatorship of Gen. Adul Karim Kassem confiscated the rights of the foreign consortium to drill on 99.5% of the country!|s land. The farmland was confiscated by the landlord Penny
Conformity Correspondence; agreement; conventional behavior; compliance; consistency. In contrast, a field-dependent style is found more in sedentary agricultural societies and in societies that stress strict child-rearing practices and conformity. (Psychology: Themes and Variations, p. 327) We should always act in conformity with the law. Candy Lau
confront stand face to face; put before; oppose; compare When confronted with adversity, Hong Kong people always rise to the occasion. Having higher education level is the basis to ensure a better future and ability to confront future challenges vivien
confront be or come face to face with China's Muslims are being forced to confront their dual identities as the United States shapes up for war in Afghanistan. The airline companies need to confront the insurance problem. Vilma Kwan
Confront to face especially in challenge The US says debate among its allies has shifted from a question of whether the US should confront Iraq to how to carry out such a confrontation. Our Basketball team is discussing whether to confront the challenges from our rival team. Penny
Confront (v.) make somebody face or consider something/ somebody unpleasant, difficult, etc.  The Task Force concluded that our public finances are confronted with structural problems.  They confronted the prisoner with his accusers. Kyle Tang
congenial (adj.) pleasant, agreeable so far, the business environment is not yet entirely congenial to foreign investment. This river is a congenial place for fish growth. Meteo
Congenial (adj.) Pleasant; Agreeable to oneself kindly Policy makers also seem to be skipping the fine print on supposedly congenial studies. Love is initiated when two congenial people finally meet each other. Lee Tsan Ki
conglomerate group or mass formed from diverse elements accumulate, gather; comprise from many sources The conglomerate said it has agreed to buy the entire share capital of China Resources Textiles (BVI) Co Ltd. The power of conglomerate is much greater than individual. leo lai ka cheong
conglomerate group or mass formed from diverse elements accumulate, gather; comprise from many sources The conglomerate said it has agreed to buy the entire share capital of China Resources Textiles (BVI) Co Ltd. The power of conglomerate is much greater than individual. leo lai ka cheong
congregating Come together in a crowd Street sleepers start congregating around 11:30 PM and sleep the night on cardboard mats. They leave just after day-break at the urging of the Cultural Center's security guards. People congregated the guest speaker quickly. Wilson Lam
conquer take possession of something by force However, the just fight to defend the licence fee seems to have been consumed by an unjust desire to conquer the digital universe at all costs. The mountain was not conquered until 1997.
conquer take possession of something by force However, the just fight to defend the licence fee seems to have been consumed by an unjust desire to conquer the digital universe at all costs. The mountain was not conquered until 1997. Vilma Kwan
conquer to take by force; to defeat Chinese firms have never given up the dream of conquering the Chinese market. After many attempts to climb it, the mountain was finally conquered by them. Liu Yanju, Liana
Conscientious (adj.) Of persons: Obedient or loyal to conscience; habitually governed by a sense of duty; scrupulous. A thorough and conscientious assessment is the foundation for successful treatment intervention. Mary is an excellent student - bright, attentive and conscientious Tse Wing Yan, Cathy
conscientiously guided by one's sense of duty It is entirely predictable that the 16th party progress will be held in small sessions, each like an afternoon tea party where the representatives will talk about their random reflections, praise the correctness of the leadership's reports and attempt to show how conscientiously they have studied it and how deeply they comprehend them. Please don't plagiarize from your classmate, do your homework conscientiously. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
conscious Aware and noticing Government departments should always be conscious of the need to enhance our institutional framework so that these and other industries can operate in an environment that is conducive to their further development. Be conscious so that you can keep away from rumours. Wilson Lam
Conscious (adj.) Knowing what is going on around one because one is able to use bodily sense and mental powers  In the recent years of economic downturn, the Government has also consciously embraced counter-cyclical fiscal policies.  She spoke to us in her conscious moments. Kyle Tang
Consecutive Coming one after the other without interruption; following continuously Three consecutive years of losses The concert will be held on consecutive days. FeiFei
Consecutive Coming one after the other without interruption The decline means consumer prices have fallen for 47 consecutive months The unemployment rate has dropped for 2 consecutive months Tsang Man Tai
Consecutive One after The problem of unemployment has deteriorated. Consumer prices have slid for 47 consecutive months as property values, which have more than halved since the start of the Asian financial crisis in 1998, have continued to be dampened by oversupply Photographs taken at the same time on two consecutive sunny days can be quite different from one another. Lee hoi Tung
consensus agreement among a group of people Negotiations continue for settlements with other major Chinese trading partners, most notably the European Union, but no major problems are anticipated in reaching consensus with the other WTO members. There is no consensus among experts about the causes of global warming.
consensus agreement among a group of people Negotiations continue for settlements with other major Chinese trading partners, most notably the European Union, but no major problems are anticipated in reaching consensus with the other WTO members. There is no consensus among experts about the causes of global warming. Ricky Biala
consensus A general agreement There was an unusual lack of consensus among investors over how much the Fed would cut rates. After 6 hours meeting, the board of directors has finally reached a consensus of offering a $1 dividend per share to shareholders. George Tsoi
consensus General agreement or accord Obviously, Tung's measures and the preferences of the public are not in consensus. Meetings are held to try to reach a consensus on certain issue. Eva Hung
consensus agreement among a group of people The result is more likely to reflect a consensus on the virtues of economic liberation. The question of which policies should be imposed would be decided yb consensus. Tse Lee
consensus agreement in opinion, testimony, or belief In 1908, leading investigators in the field of intelligence, participation a symposium, 'intelligence and its measurement', defined the tile concept, producing almost as many definitions as there were definers, but reached no consensus. The consensus of opinion was that we go aheaad with the proposed shecme. Li Zhuyu, Fiona
consensus agreement in opinion; collective opinion To international observers, it shows a disturbing lack of consensus-building. If they need to past the issue, it is important for them to reach a consensus. Raye Wu Wai Lam
consensus Agreement in opinion To be effective, the review of civil service salaries must avoid getting bogged down in political infighting and work towards building a consensus of opinion, writes Anthony Cheung. Germany and France has reached a consensus on this issue. Chan Man Hei
consensus Collective opinion; general agreement. Sir Gordon said although Mr. Tung showed support, it was vital Hong Kong, Macau and the Mainland reached a consensus before the project took shape. What is the consensus of opinion at the afternoon meeting? Peter Poon
consensus a opinion that agreed by the whole group of people. There is a consensus in Hong Kong the bridge is needed. There is a consensus in school that extra-curricular activities are as important as academic performance. Maggie
Consensus a generally accepted opinion or decision among a group of people !Many people would oppose it and it will be very difficult for Legco to reach a consensus! Could we reach a consensus on this matter? Let's take a vote. Ryan Wong Siu Fung
Consensus opinion that all members of a group agree with !Many people would oppose it and it will be very difficult for Legco to reach a consensus! There is a general consensus among teachers about the need for greater security in schools Ivy Yu Nga Yan
Consensus (n) an agreement among a group of people There is also a consensus that it could avoid wasteful between the two companies and other modes of public transport There is already a consensus between the officers and the villagers on the water supply project. Wilfred Lee Wing Cheong
consent give agreement or permission to something The CEO consented to this proposal. My teacher consent to my ideas. Edwin Lo
consequence Something that logically or naturally follows from an action or condition Boosting property prices by administrative measures can only have a short impact, without a lasting consequence on economic activities. Discussion on the consequences of sexual immorality as viewed from a fundamental, Christian perspective Tang Pang Fei
conservatism resist having a great change Mr. Neilson believes the swing towards conservatism would not have been as pronounced. Most of the old people are more conservative than the young people. Hui Ka Kit (gary)
conservatism resist having a great change Mr. Neilson believes the swing towards conservatism would not have been as pronounced Most of the old people are more conservative than the young people. Hui Ka Kit
conservatism resist having a great change Mr. Neilson believes the swing towards conservatism would not have been as pronounced. Most of the old people are more conservative than the young people. Hui Ka Kit
conservative liking old ways; not liking change Conservatives who resist China's economic reforms will suffer a heavy blow from this new drive to the rules-based international trading system. He made a conservative guess at the population of China. ZANG YU
consideration Reward, compensation Apart from number of transaction, consideration involved is also an important indicator in the property market. Volunteer are those who work without consideration. Lee Ho Yin, Joseph
console To allay the sorrow or grief of. Urban lay-offs would be reduced, financial sector reforms delayed and government intervention in the market-place increased. Politically, to console the public, the US government declared war on Afghanistan on 9th October 2001. Raey Choi
consolidate unite or combine -- become more solid, strong or secure An alternative for smaller businesses in Hong Kong is to consolidate into fewer bigger and stronger alliances to take advantages of economy of scale to improve competitiveness Some corporation consolidate into a large firm , so as to enlarge their market share. Mok Hoi Man, Emily
consolidate make or become solid or strong. Especially important in its mainland operations were improving corporate governance and management skills and consolidating information technology. In the past, Chinese emperors often consolidated their own positions by killing all those who opposed them. Chan Oi Shan
consolidate unite or combine In lengthy opening remarks resembling a mini policy address, the chief executive told legislators Hong Kong must continue to restructure economically by consolidating as a financial, business, logistics and tourism centre. Consolidating is a general method used by banks or companies to enhance efficiency. Ross
consolidate enhance We should consolidate our English to raise our competitiveness in the labour market Steven Kong
Consolidate (v) Unite or combine into one (v) Make or become solid or strong Production and distribution consolidated to created timely and cost-effective supply of products and services to the customers. Different departments of civil servants consolidate to fight against the salary cut. Kong Sze Wan
consolidate to make firm or secure Hong Kong's rapidly expanding capability in manufacturing and trading has stimulated much demand for trade supporting services in the territory, and consolidated its position as the region's most important trading hub A company can choose to use its retained profit to finance growth so as to consolidate its market position. Lee Yue kAi
consolidate To strengthen or solidify something(vb) Bear in mind the present uncertainties, we want to consolidate our strengths and invest in the future. With this price, he has consolidated his status as the leader of the Philadelphia Philharmonic Orchestra. Catherine Fan
Consolidation Consolidating or being consolidated. Require companies with stock prices below $0.50 to consolidate their shares. The two companies consolidate as to reduce cost. FeiFei
Consolidation Consolidating or being consolidated. Require companies with stock prices below $0.50 to consolidate their shares. The two companies consolidate so as to reduce cost. FeiFei
Consortium temporary association of a number of countries, companies, banks, etc for a common purpose. It involves appointing a private consortium to put up funds to build a facility and run it for a profit for a fixed term. A consortium of small stores is formed to counteract the threat of supermarkets. Ng Wai Wa
consortium an organization of several businesses or banks joining together as a group for a shared purpose A consortium of Hong Kong and mainland investors is said to be backing the bridge project. Recently a consortium of manufacturers has been formed for the sake of cost-effectiveness. Oriana Fu
conspire to plan secretly with other people to do something bad, illegal or against someone's wishes In a week when events were conspiring to make people wonder what we were getting into and whether we were up to the job, the timing of the House hiatus could not have been worse. He felt uneasy with his colleagues, as if they were always conspiring together to remove him from his job. Vincy Tam
Consternation fear resulting from the awareness of danger Imagine our consternation when one very important trading partner actually introduced separate aggregate trade statistics for the four Asian NICs. When entering the haunted house, we looked inside in consternation. Junie, Chu Ching Man
constraint A constraint is something that limits or controls what you can do. Each monetary system imposes different constraints on the economy. He decided to drop the course because of time constraints. Lin Heung Wing
Consultant To seek advice or information of. The government was studying the details and waiting for a consultant's report. The consultant committee met at the call of the chairman. Peter Poon
consultation a discussion in which people who are affected by a decision can say what they think should be done Housing Authority member Wong Kwan demanded more consultation. The mangers held a consultation to decide whether a branch was opened. Tommy
consumer sentiment Consumer sadness While consumer sentiment is still considerably higher than it was during the Gulf war 11 years ago, it's hard to see it turning up soon. Because consumer sentiment, the retail industries have little hope to go up in the near future. George Tsoi
Contagion (n.) something bad that spreads quickly by being passed from person to person The culprit is the so-called !contagion effect!. There is no risk of contagion. Wong Man Chun
contagious If a feeling, attitude, or action is contagious, other people quickly begin to feel it, believe it, do it etc. The trend toward territorial growth is contagious and increases in the process of transmission. Her enthusiasm was contagious, now everyone is working very hard. lee yik wing
Contagious (adj.) 1.(of a disease) able to be caught by touching someone with the disease or a piece of infected clothing 2.Contagious laughter/enthusiasm encourages other people to do or feel the same Professionals often need to pay careful attention to their own emotions and reactions in the evaluatory process, as the anxiety of the patient can be contagious and a source of distraction from sound of clinical practice 1.It's a highly contagious infection, so don't let anyone else use your towel. 2.He's got a contagious laugh Tse Wing Yan, Cathy
Containment Keep(sth.)under control, within limit My biggest concern is that people are nowadays only looking at cost containment... instead of looking at value creation, she said Firms use cost containment as a reason to dismiss workers. Wu Hoi Kit, Kit
contemplate to think deeply about Franchisee arrangements can be contemplated as they already have proven to be an effective way for Hong Kong garment manufacturers to expand in the mainland market. She has been performing outstandingly in the office, so her employer is contemplating promoting her to the post of secretary. Winnie Chan
contemplate look at or consider something carefully That has spurred the Federal Reserve to cut short-term interest rates to a 39-year low and Congress to contemplate a package of tax and spending measures that would give the economy an additional stimulus The investors were advised to contemplate before investing during the economic downturn David
contemplate to look at or view with continued attention; observe or study thoughtfully There would be a lot of pain for those who have mortgages. It is not something one can contemplate He is capable to contemplate many difficult problems Lawrence Lam
contemplate (v) look at or consider thoughtfully Before the government contemplates a consumption tax, it should first consider a cut in expenditure. He contemplated what the future would be like without his wife. Ho yip chun , Franco
contemplate (verb) To think about something in a deep and careful way and for a long time. We should contemplate on the unique role that Hong Kong could play in the region. He sat there and contemplated Tony Chung
contemplated to think about as an intention The HKMA must be re-staffed before a float can even be contemplated. He always flaunted his wealth in the classroom. So, many classmates do not like him. Ho Ka Ming
Contempt A strong feeling of combined dislike and lack of respect He concealed it and pretended to be rude to her and to hold her in contempt. At work, Mary has complete contempt for all her colleagues. 2002303640
contend to compete against someone in order to gain something, to argue or state that something is true. Contending that the move would contradict the stances taken by the International Labor Organization and the World Trade Organization Some astronomers contend that the universe may be younger than previous believed. Caroline Yu
contender Someone who takes part in a competition Other hub contenders argued that the government should upgrade their infrastructure facilities as soon as possible. She will be a strong contender for the Gold medal in this event. Tse Lee
contentious (adj.) quarrelsome, likely to cause contention The most contentious issue during China's 15-year journey into the World Trade Organisation was agricultural subsidies. We need a talk if too many contentious matters arise between us. Meteo
contentious likely to cause argument Negotiations with foreign companies which had entered into CCF arrangements have been contentious. The topic of human cloning is contentious. Winnie Chan
contentious likely to cause disagreement Jenny calls birth control policy a complex and contentious policy. We are trying to make a treaty with the least contentious clauses. Selina Yu
Context Circumstances in which sth happens or in which sth is to be considered In the context of global markets. In the context of a poor economy, the desire to consume is very low. f
Context Circumstances in which sth happens or in which sth is to be considered In the context of global markets. In the context of a poor economy, the desire to consume is very low. FeiFei
contingency Emergency Hotel operators are drawing up contingency plans for the anticipated slump. Contingency plans for the anticipated economic slump included cutting unnecessary expenses. Doris Hui
contingent a) conditional, something that is not certainly possible b) !Mexico pledged to cut exports by 100 000 bbl/d, contingent upon other producers!| simultaneous cuts. c) Our success is contingent to your help. Kathy Chan
Contingent something which is uncertain Mexico pledged to cut exports by 100,000 bbl/d, contingent upon other producers!| simultaneous cuts. Our success is contingent upon your help. Chim Ting Fai Byron
contingent (n)something is contingent on something else - the first thing depends on the second in order to happen or exist. Odder still, they made their decision contingent on cuts by non-OPEC members. In effects, the growth is contingent on improved incomes for the mass of low-income population wong ka man 2001240011
contingent (n.) arrange for somebody outside a company to do work or provide goods for that company The work is to model and manage financial risk and contingent events. They are strengthening their workforce with a large contingent of workers. Wong Man Chun
continuum (n.) something that changes in character gradually or in very slight stages without any clear dividing points there may be a continuum between intentional feigning and unconscious symptom production The spectrum is a continuum of colour from red to violet Tse Wing Yan, Cathy
contractual Of or in the nature of a contract If necessary, they could approach our courts and arbitration bodies to settle contractual disputes. The detailed contractual items would be discussed in the meeting keith yuk
contributions compulsory payments The employers escape from the 5% contributions. The government requires contributions from the citizens. Tam Yuen Lam
controversial (adj.) causing controversy There was slight optimism over deals virtually done on the controversial issues of developing countries' access to patented medicines and anti-dumping Whether to incrase tax or not is a controversial issue. Meteo
controversial causing or likely to cause controversy The most controversial charge announced by the bank, the SAR's biggest with four million Hong Kong account holders, was a $40 monthly fee for passbook account holders who have an average monthly balance of less than $5,000. The controversial issue is whether deregulation can really enhance the efficiency of the banking sector. Kenneth Fong (2001489851)
controversial Causing Debate or Dispute the Real Estate Developers' Association have dropped a controversial proposal for immediate 24- hour opening of the border crossings. To open the border round the clock or not is a controversial issues. Rolen
controversial disputable, debatable The most controversial provision, opposed by President Bush, would make the 28,000 airport screeners and baggage handlers federal employees Whether using Cantonese as our medium of instruction is still a controversial topic. Leo Fan
controversy argument over something Blueprint free of controversy only real option in hard times. The controversy over the human rights in China was huge. Eva Hung
controversy prolonged argument esp over social, moral or political matters. Over the past decade, considerable controversy has risen over the compensation of CEOs of major corporations. It seems to be their aim to build up any minor disagreement into a major controversy. Tang Ning(2002999736)
Conundrum riddle So Russia finds itself in a conundrum, opposed to a war that could undermines its best claim to serious global influence, but aware that it cannot sustain a long and serious disagreement with Washington over an issue like Saddam Hussein!|s future that the United States considers critical. Who can find a solution for this conundrum? Lau Cheuk Ki Steven
conversely In a converse manner; with change of order or relation Conversely, we have also seen financial market development. Let us look at the issue conversely. Eko, Yin Zheng
convertible That can be converted The bonds are convertible into ordinary shares. A convertible sofa can be converted into a bed. Yiu Wing Hei Rex
convey obsolete : LEAD, CONDUCT to bear from one place to another; especially : to move in a continuous stream or mass to impart or communicate by statement, suggestion, gesture, or appearance It will only convey the message that success can be achieved through luck rather than hard work. I owe him more than i can convey in words. Wong chun yin Benjamin
Conveyance Conveyance of something is the process of carrying or transporting it from one place to another; a formal use. Many legal firms that relied on property conveyance transactions as a source of revenue have closed in the past few years. Conveyance of most of the goods made in China is one of the main businesses Hong Kong does Gordon Ho
co-operate To work or act together toward a common end or purpose. Co-operate with travel trade to increase their awareness of Hong Kong as a travel destination and their product knowledge cost effectively. It is essential to cooperate with subordinates when one's strength is not powerful enough. Lawrence Kam
copyright ( noun ) the right in law to be the only producer, seller or broadcaster ,of a book ,play ,film ,record ,etc. ,for a fixed period of time The amendments cover changes to the legal rights and responsibilities of copyright holders, and collective administration of copyrights Who ownes the copyright of this film? Yokie Kong ( 2001711450 )
Cordon off (v) prevent someone or something entering The KCRC cordoned off an emergency cargo track for the democrats taking part in the protest. The Police cordon off the Johnston Road for inspection of the robbery happened this afternoon. Wilfred Lee Wing Cheong
core The basic or most important part; the essence Among the arguments in the question, the core argument is whether the change in policy has a great impact on the tourism industry. The core problem is that, Hong Kong has lost its advantageous position in Asia. Lawrence Kam
cornerstone something that is extremely important because everything else depends on it, a stone set at one of the bottom corners of a building, often put in place at a special ceremony. A market-determined wage mechanism is a cornerstone of an open and flexible market economy. Trust and commitment are the cornerstone of any marriage. Caroline Yu
Coroners (n.) !In the case of Virginia Woolf, the accounts available of her last months, together with her suicide notes, would convince most psychiatrists, coroners, and their juries that she was suffering from a severe depressive illness.! ( ) A coroner is an official who is responsible for investigating the deaths of people who died in a sudden, violent, or unusual way. The sudden death of an important witness seemed to be related the jury; therefore, the case was passed to coroners. Yu Nga Wai
corporation group of people authorized to act as an individual, e.g. for business purposes I strongly insisted that competition from the foreign corporations will definitely increase after the accession. There are many large multinational corporations in Hong Kong. Man Angela Pui Kei
Correlated Have a mutual relation or connection, esp of affecting or depending on each other; (try to) show such a relation or connection between sth and sth else. Market cap and stock prices are negatively correlated with financial performance of the listed companies. It is found that the time spent on sleeping is correlated with the test performance. FeiFei
corridor a usually densely populated region characterized by one or more well-traveled routes used by railroad, airline, or other carriers Major corridors, such as the Shanghai-Nanjing route, already have sufficient traffic, and will get a boost once Shanghai's deepwater port opens. The Northeast corridor extends from Washington, D.C., to Boston. Lawrence Lam 2001709500
corrupt to change from good to bad in morals, manners, or actions; also : BRIBE to degrade with unsound principles or moral values some moral concern groups oppose soccer betting on the grounds that it will debase sport, promote gambling to even greater levels, and corrupt youngsters. The manuscript is so corrupt that parts of it make no sense at all. Wong chun yin Benjamin
corruption (noun ) the immoral behaviour; decay; impurity There continues to be a fair amount of corruption, said one high-tech executive whose company has extensive trade links with China. Corruption also exists in developed countries. Yokie Kong (2001711450
cosmetics Any type of substance for putting on the face or body which is intended to improve its appearance or quality. Fancl Japan was established in 1980 to fulfill the demand for a pure range of skincare and cosmetic products. We sell a wide range of cosmetics and toiletries at a very reasonable price. Chow Kwok Shing
cosmopolitan containing people of all over the world Hong Kong is renowned for its unique multicultural and cosmopolitan society. What is the difference between Hong Kong and other cosmopolitan cities? Vilma Kwan
cosmopolitan consisting of people from many different parts of the world. Hong Kong is very cosmopolitan. The university is cosmopolitan and we can make friends from all around the world. Steven Cheng (2001251175)
counterpart a person or thing that serves the same purpose as another They will find it very hard to compete with their counterparts from China. The queen is the counterpart of the German president, they are both nonpolitical heads of the state. ZANG YU
counterpart someone or something that has the some job or purpose as someone or something else in a different place. Hong Kong workers have poorer benefits and are more likely to be underpaid than Asian counterparts, a study has found. Belgian officials are discussing this with their French counterparts. Caroline Yu
counterpart Person or thing exactly like, or closely corresponding to, another. The Foreign Minister held talks with his Chinese counterpart The Minister of Defense is meeting his American counterpart in Washington today. Yiu Wing Hei Rex
Countervailing Acting with equal force but opposite effect Mark Harrison, an economist at Warwick University, says there are three countervailing forces that determine the overall effect of large-scale war on the global economy Our debate was defected by other side!|s strong countervailing argument. Adam
Countervailing Having equal force but an opposite effect Mark Harrison, an economist at Warwick University, says there are three countervailing forces that determine the overall effect of large-scale war on the global economy - the Keynesian boost to effective demand from higher defence spending, the impact on the oil market and the collapse of co-operative economic institutions There was nobody strong enough to lead an effective countervailing force against the dictator. corey chan
coupled fasten or join The threat of recession coupled with the shock of the terrorist attacks on New York has made consumer confidence headline. The bad light, coupled with the wet ground, made play very difficult. Hermi Chan
courteous Polite and considerate in manner. Hong Kong people must continue to embrace a high degree of social tolerance, be courteous to our visitors and treat them as equals He is very kind and courteous especially to the elderly. keith yuk
courteous (adj) Polite, respectful and considerate. Be courteous to our visitors. He was quietly courteous to the staff. Tony Chung
Crack to break, split, or snap apart The economy's two engines showed worrisome cracks recently, although growth for this year is forecast at 6 percent, and 4 percent to 5 percent next year. The glass will crack if we pour hot water into it. Penny
crackdown action to stop bad or illegal behaviour One was a break of more than two years after the military crackdown on student-led democracy protests in Tiananmen Square in June 1989. The police have started to crackdown on street crimes. Ricky Biala
crackdown Repressive action, suppression Industry players also want the local government to lobby China to grant their films greater access and also to beef up its crackdown on piracy. The crackdown on terrorist became the main concern of the U.S. government after the September 11th attacks. Chan Ka
crackdown Repressive action, suppression Industry players also want the local government to lobby China to grant their films greater access and also to beef up its crackdown on piracy. The crackdown on terrorist became the main concern of the U.S. government after the September 11th attacks. Chan Ka Yan, Karen
Cranking Turning, rotating And Majnoun is only one of several monster Iraqi oilfields still waiting for the first pomp to get cranking. The machine get cranking as we put more lubricator onto the gear. Oscar Chow
crave To have an intense desire for Like most conferences, it craved for global partnership and strong co-operation. Hong Kong citizens have been craving for the revival of Hong Kong's economy Lawrence Kam
craving A strong desire for something I was craving for a drink. I have developed a craving for icecream. Karen Chan
credible reliable, believable The resulting document envisioned huge deployments of U.S. troops to Europe to counter a conventional Soviet attack, which seemed more credible. She gave a credible explanation for handing in her work late. Lee Chung Yi Phoebe
credit to give credit to; to believe; trust Several MPF providers did not credit clients with interest during the period between receiving contributions and investing money Should the trustee credit interest to fund members as soon as they receive their contributions? Polly Ng
creditworthiness The ability to borrow money These companies have already borrowed too much money, and they can't sustain their level of creditworthiness. Many people have a lot of debit, they are considered as people with very poor creditworthiness. George Tsoi
creditworthiness a character of a person or a business film that he is regarded as safe to give credit to because he is reliable in making repayment. Many companies maintain their own credit departments that investigate the creditworthiness of each prospective customer. Banks are always willing to lend money to those with creditworthiness. Selina Yu
crestfallen downcast, disappointed at failure But to many crestfallen by the destruction of New York's World Trade Center and the damage done to the Pentagon, the opening symbolized more than just the everyday buying and selling that marks the equity markets. Many American feel crestfallen after the attack of the World Trade Center. Jackie Cheng
Crew A team of people working together At least 50 per cent of the major cast and crew of the film in question are Hong Kong permanent residents. The crew of the airline struck due to the wage cut. Chan Ka Yan, Karen
criminal Related to crime or its punishment Legalized gambling can wrest control of gambling from unscrupulous and criminal elements. John is a specialist in criminal law. Maggie Chow
crimp to crimp something means to restrict or reduce it. An economic contraction of 0.9 per cent in the first quarter has crimped corporate profit and forced many to fire staff to survive. Economists have found that some government interventions may crimp net profits of different companies. Janice Hui
Crimp something means to restrict or to reduce it HK!|s property prices have fallen about 60 percent from their peak before the Asian financial crisis, crimping the government!|s revenue, dampening domestic demand and fuelling deflation. Hong Kong people!|s salaries have been cut over 10%, leading to fewer people entered the tax net, therefore the government revenue is crimped. Gordon Ho
Crimping To restrict or reduce something Hong Kong!|s property prices have fallen about 60% from their peak before the Asian financial crisis in 1997,crimping the government!|s revenue, dampening domestic demand and fuelling deflation. The freezing land auction has crimped the government revenue much. Candy Lau
Crimping To restrict or reduce something Hong Kong!|s property prices have fallen about 60% from their peak before the Asian financial crisis in 1997,crimping the government!|s revenue, dampening domestic demand and fuelling deflation. The freezing land auction has crimped the government revenue much. Candy Lau
cripple a person who because of disease or injury cannot walk or move one or more of their legs or arms correctly No-one could have foreseen a possible United States attack on Iraq, or the prolonged strike of dock workers in the US, which has threatened to cripple the southern Asian economy. Come on, you load of cripples(=slow-moving people), you can go faster than that!! yelled the coach. Tse Wun Man
cripple (vt) make into a cripple; damage seriously “ …which has threatened to cripple the southern Asian economy.” The town has been crippled by the typhoon seriously. Tsang Lai Shan
cripple (vt) make into a cripple; damage seriously “ …which has threatened to cripple the southern Asian economy.” The town has been crippled by the typhoon seriously. Tsang Lai Shan
Cripple injure, harm, damaged and limited !No one could have foreseen a possible United States attack on Iraq, or the prolonged strike of dock workers in the US, which has threatened to cripple the southern Asian economy.! Our attempts to help the jobless to find jobs have been crippled by the withdrawal of government support. Ryan Wong Siu Fung
Cripple to seriously damage or harm sb/sth !No one could have foreseen a possible United States attack on Iraq, or the prolonged strike of dock workers in the US, which has threatened to cripple the southern Asian economy.! The pilot tried to land his crippled plane. Ivy Yu Nga Yan
cripple(V) Weaken seriously ( English-Chinese Dictionary P.337) An unusually powerful electronic attack briefly crippled nine of the 13 servers (SCMP 24/10/2002) The company's interest was crippled with disorder of the management Leung Chi Him
crisis a worst situation The situation even worsens after the Asian financial crisis as most countries have their own currencies devaluated but the linked exchange rate system in HK keeps the price of HK Dollar high. It will be your big cirsis if you do not strat preparing your final exam now. Andrew K.M. Li
crisp hard, dry and easily broken New arrivals line up in the crisp air, waiting for the hotshots dominating the action to retire. Please get the crisp vase carefully. Phoebe Lo Kwok Chi
Criss-cross If things criss-cross, they create a pattern of crossed lines The freeways that criss-cross the whole of New York. A criss-cross pattern of tree trunks covered the table.
criticize to have doubts and disagreement on an issue Many people are criticizing the position of HK to be compared with present-day Shanghai. He criticizes that whether his boss is doing correctly. Andrew K.M. Li
critique (n) critical essay or review. A further consequence is the critique of the neutrality and sovereignty of reason, and an insistence on reason's gendered, historical, and ethnocentric character. The critique of the article is quite subjective. We have to justify it carefully. Tracy Tse
crucial important We said that the level of aggregate demand was crucial in determining the rate of inflation. Electricity is crucial for us. Leung Sze Mei, Jasmie
crucial Very important, decisive Stable land prices !Dcrucial to beat deficit!| Love is crucial to everybody. Chan Man Hei
crucial (of a decision or event in the future) extremely important More controversially perhaps !V but in my view crucially !V the authorities should look again at adjusting salary levels. This will be a crucial decision for the education services because it sets the standard for all future years. Tse Wun Man
crucial extremely significant or important The crucial factor was cheap labour for manufacturing in Hong Kong itself. Committing suicide is a crucial problem nowadays. Peter Lok
crucial (adj) Something that is extremely important, especially in connection with a particular situation or event in the future. Mainland talents will bring with them not only skills but also the specific knowledge crucial for success of mainland-related business. Success of failure here would be crucial to his future prospects. Tony Chung
crucial(adj.) Very important, decisive It is crucial for nurturing a sense of belonging and maintaining social stability. May be we can overcome this crucial moment if we can unite and co-operate with each other. Phoebe So
Cruise Intransitive senses 1 : to sail about touching at a series of ports 2 : to move or proceed speedily, smoothly, or effortlessly 3 : to travel without destination or purpose 4 a : to go about the streets at random but on the lookout for possible developments b : to search (as in public places) for a sexual partner 5 a of an airplane : to fly at the most efficient operating speed b of an automobile : to travel at a speed suitable for being maintained for a long distance Transitive senses 1 : to cruise over or about 2 : to inspect (as land) with reference to possible lumber yield 3 a : to search in (a public place) for a sexual partner b : to approach and suggest sexual relations to (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !Government bills could still cruise through the Legco without significant amendments, as appointed seats were still in the majority before 1991.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.350) My brother cruises over to Peter!|s house whenever he is free. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
crumble (v.) someone stops resisting or trying to win, or become unable to cope Enron shares had crumbled in the wake of revelations of unorthodox Brighton has too many experienced players to crumble just because we are in town. wong ka man 2001240011
crunch (n.) difficult moment when sth. important must be decided I still think the 1981-84 crunch was worse. The government is experiencing a crunch as it needs to decide the existence of the current peg-rate. Chan Yung
Crutch (n) A stick supporting lame person; Something depended on the others!| support. A crutch becomes a permanent crutch. His girlfriend is his psychological crutch. Lee Tsan Ki
crux the central or most important part of a problem The crux is when confidence will resume. For the Government, the crux of the matter is to relieve the sufferings of the mass and renovate the confidence of the people towards the government Polly Ng
crux The central or the most important part of a problem Dr Wong said the crux of the problem was the government's lack of a long-term housing policy Mr. Tung believes that the crux of the economic problem of HK is high cost of operation. David Chan
crux the central or most important part of the problem The crux of the matter is that they prefer light reading to helpful reading. His essay receives a low grade because he has misunderstood the crux of the question. Manuel Ng Man Chun
crux (n) the central or most important part of a problem Now the crux is when confidence will resume, he said. The crux of the matter is lack of confidence. Rico Chan
crux (noun) It is the most important or difficult part of it which has an effect on everything else. The crux of the manpower shortage problem lies in inadequate training resources. Here we come to the crux of the matter. Tony Chung
crux (noun) A critical or crucial point. Now the crux is when confidence will resume. Unemployment is a crux which we can not solved in a short time.
Cuddle Hug Furthermore, in southern Iraq there is a Shi'ite minority who would like to cuddle up to Iran Teddy bear is cuddlesome. corey chan
cul de sac A short road which is blocked off at one end The North Lantau Expressway is a cul de sac and more and more traffic is being directed into this one route. Living in a cul de sac brings less traffic noise. Oriana Fu
cul-de-sac A street with only one way in or out; Blind alley No more would the tiny territory be stuck at the end of a cul-de-sac, connected to China only by a trio of crowded crossings to the north. It!|s dangerous for you to walk in this cul-de-sac at midnight. Chan Man Han
Culminate (verb) in, (of efforts, hopes, careers, etc) reach the highest point. Investment agreements, culminating in the MAI, are a core component of the U.S policy of promoting investment liberalization. In his thirties, John has already reached the culmination of his career. Tang, Vivian Lok Sze (2002 608349)
cultivate a)to try to acquire or develop a relationship, an attitude, etc; b)to try to win the friendship or support of somebody; c)to make the mind, feelings etc more educated and sensitive. This may start with... , followed by cultivating relationships with local business contacts and learning the Mainland social and business culture. She is trying to cultivate the friendship of influential people who can help her in business. Dorothy Chan
cumbersome 1. large and heavy; difficult to carry. 2. slow and complicated. Consumption taxes cascade, unless they are applied as a value-added tax, which is cumbersome to administer. The introduction of a new consumption tax will involve cumbersome legal procedures. Wong Ho Po
cumbersome heavy and awkward to carry Banking, insurance, retail and distribution sector are likely to continue to be slow and painstaking, with cumbersome application procedures and formalities. The cumbersome salary system decrease the efficiency of the companies. Hui Chi Hao
cumbersome difficult or inefficient Consumption taxes cascade, unless they are applied as a value-added tax, which is cumbersome to administers. The administrative procedures of this school is very cumbersome. Ko Pak Chuen
Cumbersome slow and efficient They cascade, unless they are applied as value-added tax, which is cumbersome to administer. In the times of economic, cumbersome department will be vulnerable to sacking. Ng Wai Wa
curb edge of a sidewalk; bridle for a horse; restraint raised edge of a sidewalk Airport workers who screen passengers and baggage are suddenly seeing wages rise by as much as 50 percent as airlines and security firms try to curb notoriously high turnover and attract new employees The government should go out of the way to curb the unemployment. Leo Fan
curb An enclosing framework. An effort to curb costs after the devastating attacks on New York and Washington. John tries all methods to curb the relationship with his girlfriend. Ken Yuen
curb things that restrains or controls End of quotas and easing of curbs may draw 300,000 extra business people and holidaymakers a year. When the economy is overheated, the government will try to put a curb on investment and consumption. Lam Chi Man, Jimmy
curb (verb) To check, restrain, or control. Ms Tang said the new jobs would be of little help in curbing rising unemployment, which is expected to worsen following the US terror attacks. Mr. Tung Chee-hwa proposed that the government will make every effort to create over 30,000 jobs in order to curb rising unemployment. Fun
curbed if u curb something, u control it and keep it within limits There have been suggestions that the number of maids - who now number 240,000 - be curbed through economic or administrative measures. This advertisement aims at curbing the use of plastic bags Janice Hui
cursory (of work, reading, etc)quick; hurried; done without attention to details. A cursory survey of media showed that the attention on the part of health authorities is still focused on infectious disease. A cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson; a more extensive study should be undertaken. Tang Ning(2002999736)
curtail to stop (something) before it is finished, or to reduce or limit (something) He expects demand for the Web-based communication products to shoot up because of curtailed business air travel, in the wake of the Sept. 11 hijackings. The last government severely curtailed freedom of speech. Vincy Tam
curtail To reduce or limit (something) In the longer term, the government is clearly signaling that it wants drastically to curtail the HOS and replace it with interest-free loans to help people buy flats. The Government curtailed its public spending. Karen Kong
Curtail to cut short, reduce, limit Statoil's spokesman, output has been curtailed at that company's Gullfaks, Heidrun, and Statfjord Fields as well as other fields operated by other companies. The HK government is trying to curtail public spending by rising the fees in the Hospital s Penny
Curtail To reduce in degree Arab nations curtailed production by 5 million barrels per day. Due to inflation, the public have to curtail ordinary expenses so as to pay taxation to the Government. Adam
Curtail To cut short; to deprive of a part (of); to abridge The ministerial system will ensure that the powers of senior civil servants are curtailed. (Willy Wo-Lap Lam(2002). Hong Kong, 1997-2002. China Brief, 2,13. Retrieved on November 27, 2002, from pubs/view/cwe_002_013_001.htm) Her right to vote in the election was curtailed by authority due to her absence in most of the meetings held previously. Candy Lau
Curtail (v.) If you curtail something such as someone!|s power or freedom, you restrict it. (Collins Cobuild English Dictionary, p. 348) ! The policy!V making power of the Legco is no doubt curtailed after 1997.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p. 350) The freedom of a demonstrator is curtailed under the surveillance of police. Sit Yee Ling, Elaine 2002043795
curtailed To cut short or reduce Two domestic flights had to be curtailed following passenger disturbances. Due to the limited budget constraint, the original plan has to be curtailed. Ken Yuen
Curtailed decrease, reduce, shorten, cut short Discount package have been curtailed for the flats. The burden has been curtailed after government cutting the tax rate. CHUNG KWOK CHU(Anthony)
Curtailed To make less by or as if by cutting off or away some part (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) !The policy-making power of the Legco is no doubt curtailed after 1997.! (The First Tung Chee Hwa Administration, p.350) As the government is suffering from a budget deficit, it has to curtail its expenditure. Ray Cheung (ECEN1901L)
curtailment make something shorter or less The unprecedented shutdown of American air travel and tightened border restrictions induced dramatic curtailments of production at some establishments with tight just-in-time supply chain practices, most notably in the motor vehicle industry. The share price fell due to the curtailment of share-buying. David
cushion soften something by absorbing the effect of impact Fiscal policy, in particular, should be used to cushion the impact of recession. Powerful shock absorbers cushion our landing. Lam Man Chi
cushion (verb) soften (sth) by absorbing the effect of impact Taiwan's economy will continue to grow at a positive rate due to the fact that government expenditure will cushion the drop in consumption and decreased investment. The proposed tax breaks would cushion the pressure of negative asset owners GoGo
cutback curtailing, reduction , cutting down, decrease As part of cutbacks, United has announced that it will discontinue by United service, which was intended to compete with Southwest Airline Airways, which is planning to retire 99 of its 600 aircraft. One can imagine the proportion of GDP of the airline industries would cutback significantly. Pooh
Cutback A decrease; a curtailment Secretary for Environment, Transport and Works Sarah Liao Sau-tung yesterday moved to allay fears of a cutback on new jobs as a result of the re-prioritising of infrastructure projects. Because of the diminishing of sales in the previous months, Company A has a cutback on its number of workers. Lee Ching Frederick
cutbacks reduction in quantity SIA has warned of possible retrenchments & cutbacks... Most people are getting cutbacks from their salaries as the economy as a slow. Mamta Goel
cyclical of or occurring in cycles Government was considering a set of measures to tackle the short-term problems caused by external and cyclical factors as well as long-term restructuring issues. The estimated Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate for this year is negative in this cyclical economic downturn. Polly Ng
cyclical (adj.) repeated many times and always happening in the same order Hong Kong's problems are more than cyclical, said Andy Xie, head of Asian economics for Morgan Stanley. Economic activity often follows a cyclical pattern. Surat Suwannikkha
cynics A person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness. After Mr. Tung's presentation of his lackluster Policy Address, cynics put the applicability of his measures into controversy. I believed the thinkings of cynics and agree with it without exception. Eva Hung