References vs Bibliography

What are they?

References usually come at the end of a text (essay or research report) and should contain only those works cited within the text. So, use the term 'References' to cover works cited, and 'Additional Bibliography' to refer to works read as general background.

A Bibliography is any list of references at the end of a text, whether cited or not. It includes texts you made use of, not only texts you referred to in your paper, but your own additional background reading, and any other articles you think the reader might need as background reading.

Both Refs. & Bibliog. must be in alphabetical order; and each entry must be laid out in a strictly ordered sequence. Examples:

Cuba, L. (1988) A Short Guide to Writing in the Social Sciences.

London: Scott Foresman.Chs. 2, 4 & 6.

Friedman, S. & S. Steinberg (1989) Writing and thinking in the

Social Sciences.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hamp-Lyons, L. & K. Courter (1984) Research matters. Rowley,

Mass.: Newbury House.

Ivanic, R. & J. Simpson (1992) Who's who in academic writing?

In N. Fairclough (Ed) Critical Language Awareness.
London: Longman. 141-17

How do you compile a bibliographic entry?

A bibliographic entry is a 'reference' which offers readers a standard set of information that will enable them to either
  • find the cited source in a library, or
  • order it through a library or bookshop.
The information varies according to the type of source. We look at the 3 main sources:

Note: There are many variations of format, even within the same discipline. Browse through the back pages of different journals to get an idea. Our advice is to choose a system you like - or your teachers prefer - and use it consistently.

In Academic Grammar, we use a simplified version of the 'house style' most common to the Social Sciences: the American Psychological Association, or APA, for all of our formats, as illustrated previously.
A typical book entry would be as follows:
Hamp-Lyons, L. & K. Courter (1984) Research matters. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

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